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The Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA) is a recognized morphologic variant affecting all granulocytes but is most evident in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). PHA is caused by a decreased amount of the lamin B receptor (LBR). Recognition of PHA morphologic features serves as a marker for mutations in the LBR gene. This review summarizes the history of PHA and(More)
The rhombic lip (RL) is the neuroepithelium immediately adjacent to the roof plate of the fourth ventricle, and it gives rise to various brainstem and cerebellar cell types. Our study shows that the bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor Olig3 is expressed in the progenitors of RL, and ablation of Olig3 significantly affects the development of(More)
In previous studies, we demonstrated that the exogenous ganglioside GM1 increased the complexity of the microtubular network and level of tubulin, selectively changed the distribution of microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity from the perikarya to distal neuritic processes and increased immunogold label of MAP2 in the subplasmalemmal(More)
To investigate mechanisms of neurite outgrowth, murine Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells were exposed to ganglioside GM1 in the presence or absence of specific protein kinase inhibitors. Isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89), an inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA), and bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM), which inhibits protein kinase C, each stimulated(More)
A lambda gt11 chicken oviduct cDNA library was screened with a mixed synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to amino acid residues 81-90 of chicken egg white cystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Two initial cDNA clones of 367 and 431 bases were isolated. Both clones contained coding sequences for cystatin from amino acid residue 82 to the carboxyl(More)
Cancer metastasis involves multiple factors, one of which is the production and secretion of matrix degrading proteases by the cancer cells. Many metastasizing cancer cells secrete the lysosomal proteases, cathepsins L and B, which implicates them in the metastatic process. Cathepsins L and B are regulated by endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI)(More)
A specific irreversible inhibitor of both cathepsins B and L, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-CHN(2) (FYAD) induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells but not other tumor cells. Cysteine protease inhibitors that were not efficient inhibitors of both proteases did not cause death of any cell line tested. Apoptosis was preceded by accumulation of large electron dense vesicles and(More)
The ability of a cancer cell to metastasis to a distant site is partly dependent on the secretion of matrix degrading enzymes. The lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L, have been shown to be secreted by a number of cancer cells and have been implicated in metastasis. Cathepsins B and L are regulated by a class of inhibitors known as the(More)
Cathepsins L and B are lysosomal cysteine proteinases whose activities and cellular location are altered in many types of cancers and cancer cell lines. Cathepsins L and B play an unspecified role in cancer invasion and metastasis. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cathepsins L and B are important for the ability of two prostate cancer cell(More)