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Mast cells play a key role in inflammatory reactions triggered by tissue injury or immune perturbations. Little is known about endogenous molecules and mechanisms capable of modulating inappropriate mast cell activity. N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)hexadecanamide (palmitoylethanolamide), found in peripheral tissues, has been proposed to act as a local autacoid capable(More)
The present study provides evidence that the adult mammalian retina is highly sensitive to the excitotoxic action of NMDA. In particular, we have investigated the effects of a single intravitreal injection of different doses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (2-200 nmoles) on the adult rat retina. Morphological evaluation of transverse sections of retinae(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effect of a transient complete ischemia on the function of cat retina and to determine whether nerve growth factor (NGF), which was previously shown to enhance retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after optic nerve section in the adult rat, can promote recovery of retinal neurons after the ischemic insult. METHODS Function of(More)
Retinal functionality during short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and simultaneous systemic blood pressure (BP) variations was evaluated in the cat by recording the electroretinogram in response to both homogenous flickering light (FERG) and contrast reversing gratings (PERG). The mean arterial blood pressure (BPm) was pharmacologically adjusted(More)
We studied the development of diabetic neuropathy and its treatment with gangliosides using the C57BL/Ks mouse. The results of axonal morphometry showed the presence of a progressive axonal atrophy which was maximal at 180 days of age. To 400 days of age there was no longer any significant difference, perhaps due to aging processes. Nerve conduction(More)
1. The effect of intraventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) by means of a cannula-minipump system was studied in kittens monocularly deprived during the critical period. The ocular dominance of area 17 neurones of NGF-treated and control kittens was determined by conventional extracellular recordings. The soma size of cells in A and A1(More)
The presence of a novel voltage-dependent chloride current, active in the subthreshold range of membrane potential, was detected in the mature and intact rat sympathetic neuron in vitro by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Hyperpolarizing voltage steps applied to a neuron held at -40/-50 mV elicited inward currents, whose initial(More)
1. Adult and intact sympathetic neurones of the rat superior cervical ganglion maintained in vitro at 37 degrees C were analysed using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique in order to investigate the slow component of the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current, IAHP. 2. The relationship between the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) conductance, gAHP, and estimated(More)
The membrane current activated by fast nicotinic excitation of intact and mature rat sympathetic neurons was studied at 37 degrees C, by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. The excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) was modeled as the difference between two exponentials. A fast time constant (tau2; mean value 0.57 ms), which proves to be(More)
Two slow currents have been described in rat sympathetic neurons during and after tetanization of the whole preganglionic input. Both effects are mediated by nicotinic receptors activated by native acetylcholine (ACh). A first current, indicated as IAHPsyn, is calcium dependent and voltage independent, and is consistent with an IAHP-type potassium current(More)