Rita Bortell

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Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the life-and-death decisions of β cells during the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although crosstalk between inflammation and ER stress has been suggested to play a significant role in β cell dysfunction and death, a key molecule connecting(More)
In pancreatic beta cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important site for insulin biosynthesis and the folding of newly synthesized proinsulin. Here, we show that IRE1alpha, an ER-resident protein kinase, has a crucial function in insulin biosynthesis. IRE1alpha phosphorylation is coupled to insulin biosynthesis in response to transient exposure to(More)
For many years, the vast amount of data gathered from analysis of nonobese diabetic (NOD) and congenic NOD mice has eclipsed interest in the rat for the study of type 1 diabetes. The study of rat models has continued, however, and recently there has been a reanimation of interest for several reasons. First, genetic analysis of the rat has accelerated.(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death has an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, including diabetes and neurodegeneration. Although proapoptotic programs activated by ER stress have been extensively studied, identification and characterization of antiapoptotic programs that counteract ER stress are currently incomplete.(More)
Osteocalcin, a bone-specific protein and marker of the mature osteoblast, is expressed only in nonproliferating osteoblasts in a mineralizing extracellular matrix, while type I collagen is expressed in proliferating cells. The nuclear proteins encoded by the c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes are expressed during the proliferation period of osteoblast phenotype(More)
Immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immune-deficient (scid) mice bearing a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2rgamma(null)) engraft readily with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we report a robust model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease (GVHD)(More)
RT6 is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked surface molecule present on most mature rat T-cells. RT6+ T-cells can prevent the expression of autoimmune diabetes in the BB rat, but the mechanism is unknown. Because cross-linking of other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked T-cell proteins is known to activate T-cells, we investigated the signaling(More)
Rat RT6 proteins, and perhaps mouse Rt6, identify a set of immunoregulatory T lymphocytes. Rat RT6.1 (RT6.1) and rat RT6.2 (RT6. 2) are NAD glycohydrolases, which catalyze auto-ADP-ribosylation, but not ADP-ribosylation of exogenous proteins. Mouse Rt6.1 (mRt6.1) also catalyzes auto-ADP-ribosylation. The activity of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes is(More)
Apoptosis is a regulated cell death program controlled by extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. The intrinsic pathway involves stress signals that activate pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, inducing permeabilization of mitochondria and release of apoptogenic factors. These proteins localize to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Ian4, a(More)