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Arteriolosclerotic leucoencephalopathy in the elderly (ALE) is characterized by white matter lesions associated with atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis. Mild lesions are focal and probably represent early status cribosus or incomplete lacunar infarcts. Moderate and severe lesions are diffuse areas of demyelination in the centrum semiovale in which(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive and memory decline, personality changes, and synapse loss. Increasing evidence indicates that factors such as oxidative and nitrosative stress, glutathione depletion, and impaired protein metabolism can interact in a vicious cycle, which is central to AD pathogenesis. In the present(More)
Seventeen patients affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) underwent two transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies separated by an interval of 12 months, in order to monitor possible changes in motor cortex excitability. After the first examination, all patients were treated with cholinesterase inhibitor drugs. Motor threshold (MT), amplitude of motor(More)
To study the possible changes of cortical excitability in the Alzheimer disease (AD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and to evaluate their eventual correlation with its stage twenty-one AD patients and 18 normal controls underwent TMS. Motor threshold, amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), central motor conduction time (CMCT) and silent(More)
Twenty Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 20 subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) patients and 20 neurologically and cognitively normal subjects underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation to study motor cortex excitability changes. Motor threshold (MT), amplitude of motor evoked potentials, silent period and the H/M ratio (amplitude of maximal(More)
Auditory hallucinations are experienced by 60-80% of person with schizophrenia and can often cause significant distress behavioural dyscontrol. The application of rTMS in the left temporoparietal cortex could modulate the neuronal activation and reduce the occurrence of auditory disperceptions. Sixteen schizophrenic patients (treated with atypical(More)
BACKGROUND Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) represents a common complication present in well-compensated cirrhotic patients that impairs patients' daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has been shown to be useful in improving blood ammonia and cognitive functions in cirrhotic patients with MHE. OBJECTIVE(More)
Recently, neuropathological studies have shown an important motor cortex involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in its early stages, despite the lack of clinically evident motor deficit. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated that cortical excitability is enhanced in AD patients. This cortical hyperexcitability is believed(More)
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a clinical syndrome that encompasses a wide spectrum of cognitive disorders caused by cerebrovascular disease. The subcortical ischemic form of VaD is clinically homogeneous and a major cause of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Vascular lesions contribute to cognitive decline in neurodegenerative dementias, and VaD and(More)
Data on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) derived measures of cortical excitability and intracortical circuits in age-related white matter changes are scarce. We aimed to assess early changes of motor cortex excitability in nondemented elderly patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SVD). Ten SVD elderly and ten age-matched controls(More)