Risto Juvonen

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Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) belong to a superfamily of enzymes that play a key role in the metabolism of aldehydes of both endogenous and exogenous derivation. The human ALDH superfamily comprises 19 isozymes that possess important physiological and toxicological functions. The ALDH1A subfamily plays a pivotal role in embryogenesis and development by(More)
Currently, there are no selective, well characterized inhibitors for CYP2A6. Therefore, the effects of trans-(+/-)-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) were studied to elucidate its selectivity. The IC50 value of tranylcypromine in coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6 model(More)
The prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine proteases includes prolyl oligopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, acylaminoacyl peptidase and oligopeptidase B. The enzymes of this family specifically hydrolyze oligopeptides with less than 30 amino acids. Many of the POP family enzymes have evoked pharmaceutical interest as they have roles in the(More)
Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic antipyretic agent. When used at low doses, it is a safe drug, but at higher doses it can cause acute hepatic necrosis in humans and experimental animals. The key mechanism in the hepatotoxicity is cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalysed formation of the reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) that is(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Interaction between CYP2E1, ethanol metabolites, and enhanced lipid peroxidation is linked to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This study was conducted to compare the expression of various cytochrome enzymes and the appearance of aldehyde adducts in humans. METHODS Acetaldehyde- and lipid peroxidation-derived protein adducts(More)
Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) is a very potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and mouse Cyp2a-5-mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation in vitro. To determine the effect of methoxsalen on coumarin 7-hydroxylation in humans in vivo, five subjects were given 45 mg of methoxsalen and 5 mg of coumarin. Methoxsalen inhibited in vivo coumarin(More)
1. We have shown earlier that pilocarpine strongly inhibits mouse and human liver coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity of CYP 2A and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity of CYP 2B in vitro. Since pilocarpine, like coumarin, contains a lactone structure we have studied in more detail its inhibitory potency on mouse and human liver coumarin 7-hydroxylation. 2.(More)
The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is able to bind the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and thus potentially restrict its rapid absorption from the intestine. In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and(More)
The mode of action of the highly toxic environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is unknown. It was recently discovered that two strains of rat, Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W), differ widely in susceptibility to TCDD. Employing this strain divergence as a probe, the present study set out to assess the role of various(More)
The mouse hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 and its human orthologue CYP2A6 catalyse the metabolism of a number of drugs and toxins, such as halothane and aflatoxin B1. The enzymes are named "Coumarin 7-hydroxylase" and "Nicotine Hydroxylase", respectively, by virtue of their high affinity and specific activity towards these compounds. Bilirubin, the(More)