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Little is known about the causes of enteric fever in Asia. Most cases are believed to be caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the remainder by S. Paratyphi A. We compared their incidences by using standardized methods from population-based studies in China, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan.
BACKGROUND The importance of invasive salmonellosis in African children is well recognized but there is inadequate information on these infections. We conducted a fever surveillance study in a Tanzanian rural hospital to estimate the case fraction of invasive salmonellosis among pediatric admissions, examine associations with common co-morbidities and(More)
Entering data on case report forms and subsequently digitizing them in electronic media is the traditional way to maintain a record keeping system in field studies. Direct data entry using an electronic device avoids this two-step process. It is gaining in popularity and has replaced the paper-based data entry system in many studies. We report our(More)
BACKGROUND The annual incidence and temporal trend of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia during a four-year period in Muheza, Tanzania was assessed. METHODS Data on severely ill febrile children aged 2 months to 14 years from three prospective studies conducted at Muheza District Hospital from 2006 to 2010 was pooled and analysed. On(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a surveillance study to determine the leading causes of bloodstream infection in febrile patients seeking treatment at three district hospitals in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, an area with low malaria transmission. METHODS All patients above two months of age presenting to hospital with fever were screened, and blood was(More)
BACKGROUND The gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever is blood culture (BC). Because blood culture is often not available in impoverished settings it would be helpful to have alternative diagnostic approaches. We therefore investigated the usefulness of clinical signs, WHO case definition and Widal test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (More)
OBJECTIVE To define mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, in the context of a cholera and typhoid fever project. METHODS In a well-defined population that was under surveillance for 18 months, we followed a dynamic cohort of 63 788 residents whose households were visited monthly by community health workers to identify deaths. Trained(More)
BACKGROUND Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an(More)
This study aims at understanding the individual and community-level characteristics that influenced participation in two consecutive vaccine trials (typhoid and cholera) in urban slums of Kolkata, India. The study area was divided into 80 geographic clusters (communities), with 59,533 subjects aged > or = 2 years for analysis. A multi-level model was(More)
Falciparum malaria increases the risk for bacteraemia, whereas the relationship between vivax malaria and bacteraemia is not clear. Data from a prospective fever surveillance study in Kolkata, India were reanalysed for the potential association between Plasmodium vivax malaria and bacteraemia. Patients of all ages presenting with fever of three days or more(More)