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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However,(More)
RP105 is a leucine-rich repeat molecule that is expressed on mouse B cells and transmits a growth-promoting signal. An anti-RP105 Ab precipitated additional molecules as well as RP105. These molecules were found to be a mouse homologue of chicken MD-1. Chicken MD-1 was previously isolated as a v-myb-regulated gene, since its transcription increases rapidly(More)
PURPOSE Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired by oral ingestion. H. pylori has been reported to be present in the palatine tonsils. To clarify the route and mode of infection, the prevalence of tonsillar H. pylori was evaluated, and an attempt was made to culture tonsillar H. pylori. METHODS In a prospective study, 55 patients with recurrent(More)
The human MD-2 molecule is associated with the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and greatly enhances its LPS signaling. The human TLR4-MD-2 complex thus signals the presence of LPS. Little is known, however, about cell surface expression and LPS signaling of the TLR4-MD-2 complex in vivo. We cloned mouse MD-2 molecularly and(More)
Taxol, an antitumor agent derived from a plant, mimics the action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice but not in humans. Although Taxol is structurally unrelated to LPS, Taxol and LPS are presumed to share a receptor or signaling molecule. The LPS-mimetic activity of Taxol is not observed in LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice, which possess a point mutation in(More)
The complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and associated MD-2 signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when it is expressed in cell lines. We here show that normal human mononuclear cells express TLR4 and signal LPS via TLR4. CD14 is a molecule that binds to LPS and facilitates its signaling. Little is known, however, about the(More)
RP105 is a B-cell surface molecule that has been recently assigned as CD180. RP105 ligation with an antibody induces B-cell activation in humans and mice, leading to proliferation and up-regulation of a costimulatory molecule, B7.2/CD86. RP105 is associated with an extracellular molecule, MD-1. RP105/MD-1 has structural similarity to Toll-like receptor 4(More)
RP105 was originally discovered as a mouse B-cell surface molecule that transmits an activation signal. The signal leads to resistance against irradiation-induced apoptosis and massive B-cell proliferation. Recently, we found that mouse RP105 is associated with another molecule, MD-1. We have isolated here the human MD-1 cDNA. We show that human MD-1 is(More)
We have established an agonistic monoclonal antibody, UT12, that induces stimulatory signals comparable to those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2. UT12 activated nuclear factor kappaB and induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in(More)
BACKGROUND The laminin (LN) gamma2 chain expression has been linked to tumor invasion and prognosis. To provide a convenient clinical use, procedures that analyze LNgamma2 expression by using the serum and/or urine of patients should be developed. METHODS The serum concentrations of the N-terminal fragments of the LNgamma2 chain in 73 patients with head(More)