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This paper reviews recent empirical findings related to prefrontal and executive function in unipolar depression. While a number of reviews have dealt with either the neuropsychological literature or findings from imaging studies, the present review addresses both, as well as findings from studies that have combined brain-imaging techniques with(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
Schizophrenic and normal control subjects were examined using both H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and structural MR imaging, in order to accurately assess the partial volume within the spectroscopic volume of interest (VOI) in the anterior cingulate cortex. The gray matter volume within VOI correlated positively with the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to(More)
A common missense mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T) has been shown to be a risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease and neural tube defect. Deficient activity of MTHFR has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. Arinami et al found an(More)
OBJECTIVE Small Japanese studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia have higher rates of the HLA-DR1 gene than normal subjects. The authors' goal in the present study was to confirm this finding in a larger number of Japanese subjects. They also investigated the rate of DR4 in Japanese patients with schizophrenia because it has been reported(More)
Autistic disorder is associated with deficits in social function. The disorder may be related to dysfunction in the brain regions that are involved in the process of recognising facial expressions of other persons. Using fMRI, we investigated whether autistic patients with relatively high IQ would have different brain activation on the tasks of recognition(More)
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the diffusional anisotropy of water molecules is disrupted in the pyramidal and extra-pyramidal regions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We studied seven patients with probable ALS (four women, mean age +/- SD, 57.3 +/- 6.2 years old) according to the criteria of the World Federation(More)
We investigated the changes of immunological functions in 14 schizophrenic patients (DSM-III-R; six men and eight women) who were hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. The following immunological functions were studied on admission, 4 and 8 weeks after admission: serum immunoglobulins (Ig)G, A, and M; serum complement CH50; lymphocyte(More)
The recent possible neurodevelopmental etiology of schizophrenia makes the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene an interesting candidate locus. We studied the allelic distributions of dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the NT-3 gene locus in 70 patients with schizophrenia and in 70 controls. A highly significant difference between the two groups was observed at the(More)