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T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help development of antibody responses via interleukin-21 (IL-21). Here we show that activated human dendritic cells (DCs) induced naive CD4(+) T cells to become IL-21-producing Tfh-like cells through IL-12. CD4(+) T cells primed with IL-12 induced B cells to produce immunoglobulins in a fashion dependent on IL-21 and(More)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) as tracer was used to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in six patients with the catatonic subtype of schizophrenia (DSM-III-R). IMP-SPECT imaging revealed a significant reduction of rCBF in the parietal lobes of both hemispheres. Three-dimensional(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a central role in maintaining immune homoeostasis through various mechanisms. Although the Forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 defines the Treg cell lineage and functions, the molecular mechanisms of Foxp3 induction and maintenance remain elusive. Here we show that Foxp3 is one of the direct targets of Nr4a2. Nr4a2 binds to(More)
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) maintain immune homeostasis by limiting inflammatory responses. SOCS1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 1), a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, is necessary for the suppressor functions of T(reg) cells in vivo, yet detailed mechanisms remain to be clarified. We found that Socs1(-/-) T(reg) cells produced high levels(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain tolerance to intestinal microorganisms. However, Il10(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice, which lack IL-10 and Tregs, remain healthy, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of tolerance. Here, we identify suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) as an essential mediator of immune tolerance in the(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homeostasis by limiting inflammatory responses. TRAF6 plays a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by mediating signals from various receptors including the T-cell receptor (TCR). T cell-specific deletion of TRAF6 has been shown to induce multiorgan inflammatory disease, but the role of TRAF6(More)
Inflammasome activation has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases including post-ischaemic inflammation after stroke. Inflammasomes mediate activation of caspase-1, which subsequently induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, as well as a form of cell death called pyroptosis. In this study, we report that Bruton's(More)
NO, a free radical gas, is known to be critically involved not only in vascular relaxation but also in host defense. Besides direct bactericidal effects, NO has been shown to inhibit Th1 responses and modulate immune responses in vivo, although the precise mechanism is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of NO on human plasmacytoid dendritic(More)
The rate of graft survival has dramatically increased using calcineurin inhibitors, however chronic graft rejection and risk of infection are difficult to manage. Induction of allograft-specific regulatory T-cells (Tregs) is considered an ideal way to achieve long-term tolerance for allografts. However, efficient in vitro methods for developing(More)
BACKGROUND In this study, we sought to identify definitive biomarkers associated with disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS Serum protein concentrations in pSS patients and healthy controls (HCs) were comprehensively screened using high-throughput proteomic analysis, and differentially expressed proteins were extracted. Correlation(More)