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Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during(More)
International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-detection, as alternative for primary CEF, was studied in three(More)
Inoculation of influenza (H5N1) into beagles resulted in virus excretion and rapid seroconversion with no disease. Binding studies that used labeled influenza (H5N1) showed virus attachment to higher and lower respiratory tract tissues. Thus, dogs that are subclinically infected with influenza (H5N1) may contribute to virus spread.
BACKGROUND At the end of 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, tentatively named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was discovered in Germany. This virus has since been associated with clinical signs of decreased milk production, watery diarrhoea and fever in dairy cows, and subsequently also with congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids. In affected(More)
The correlation between the antigen content of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) oil emulsion-vaccines and the serological response after immunisation was studied. The haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were quantified in 33 inactivated oil-adjuvanted ND vaccines using isopropylmyristate(More)
After avian influenza (AI) vaccination, hens will produce progeny chickens with maternally derived AI-specific antibodies. In the present study we examined the effect of maternal immunity in young chickens on the protection against highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus infection and on the effectiveness of AI vaccination. The mean haemagglutination inhibition(More)
In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby(More)
We evaluated the influence of the use of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-strains Ulster and La Sota in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for the measurement of antibody titres after NDV vaccination. The use of the homologous La Sota antigen in the HI assay after Clone30 and La Sota vaccination of SPF-chickens, resulted in significantly higher(More)
To find early and sensitive indicators of treatment response in breast cancer, we studied the mRNA levels of proliferation-related genes during growth arrest of the human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF7. A sensitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was used in order to monitor gene expression in small samples of cells. Estrogen-depletion(More)
Successful immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) of mice bearing a large burden of lymphokine-activated killer-resistant disseminated SL2 lymphoma is described. When mice were challenged i.p. with 2 x 10(4) SL2 cells on day 0 and treated with daily i.p. injections of 5,000 units rIL-2 on days 3-7, no therapeutic effect was observed. However(More)