Rikke Lenhard Ratzer

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Pathology studies of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate a major role of inflammation including Th17-cells and meningeal inflammation with ectopic lymphoid follicles, B-cells and plasma cells, the latter indicating a possible role of the newly identified subset of follicular T-helper (TFH) cells. Although previous studies reported increased(More)
OBJECTIVE Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progressive MS were included to receive natalizumab treatment for 60(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with the monoclonal antibody natalizumab effectively reduces the formation of acute lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Natalizumab binds the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4, expressed on the surface of immune cells, and inhibits VLA-4 dependent transmigration of circulating immune-cells across the vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) have indicated differences in the pathogenesis in relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS) disease. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that different MS subtypes would show differences in gene expression that could be traced to specific subsets of peripheral blood(More)
Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, and some untreated multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin (EPO) is a part of an endogenous neuroprotective system in the brain and may address pathophysiological mechanisms in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To evaluate a treatment effect of EPO on progressive MS. METHODS This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, in which 52(More)
BACKGROUND There is a large unmet need for treatments for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Phase 2 studies with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker outcomes may be well suited for the initial evaluation of efficacious treatments. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of monthly oral methylprednisolone pulse treatment on intrathecal(More)
Genome wide association studies and fine mapping has established a firm link between the IL2RA gene, encoding the interleukin-2 receptor α-chain CD25, and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls (HCs) and MS patients are associated with IL2RA SNP(More)
Upon chronic cigarette smoke exposure, inhaled antigens and irritants cause altered lung immune homeostasis. Circulating immune cells are affected, and smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing various disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted to determine the impact of smoking on circulating immune cell(More)