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PURPOSE To investigate the roles of melanoma-associated macrophages in melanoma resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN An in vitro macrophage and melanoma cell coculture system was used to investigate whether macrophages play a role in melanoma resistance to BRAFi. The effects of macrophages in tumor resistance were examined by(More)
The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in melanomas is correlated with a poor clinical prognosis. However, there is limited information on the characteristics and biological activities of human TAMs in melanomas. In this study, we developed an in vitro method to differentiate human monocytes to macrophages using modified melanoma-conditioned(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a critical role in melanoma growth and metastasis. Infiltration of TAMs correlates with the poor prognosis of melanoma. TAMs are differentiated from monocytes in response to the tumor microenvironment cue. However, the mechanism how TAMs adapt to the tumor microenvironment after differentiation from monocytes is not(More)
Purpose: To investigate the roles of melanoma-associated macrophages in melanoma resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). Experimental Design: An in vitro macrophage and melanoma cell coculture system was used to investigate whether macrophages play a role in melanoma resistance to BRAFi. The effects of macrophages in tumor resistance were examined by(More)
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