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Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK) is a serine/threonine kinase and plays an important role in various cellular functions. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A/PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) are also serine/threonine kinases, and directly and/or indirectly take part in the signal transduction pathways of Rho-kinase. They have(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC), a phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinase, appears to be involved in the signal transduction response to many hormones and growth factors; there are 11 different PKC isozymes. Because PKC isozymes directly and/or indirectly participate in signal transduction pathways of normal and transformed cells through phosphorylation of(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) control the signaling and activation of G protein-coupled receptors through phosphorylation. In this study, consensus substrate motifs for GRK2 were identified from the sequences of GRK2 protein substrates, and 17 candidate peptides were synthesized to identify peptide substrates with high affinity for GRK2. GRK2(More)
The purpose of this study was to find protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme-specific peptides. A peptide library containing 1772 sequences was designed using Scansite and screened by MALDI-TOF MS and kinase activity assays for PKC isozyme-specificity. A peptide (Alphatomega; H-FKKQGSFAKKK-NH(2)) with high specificity for PKC alpha relative to other isozymes was(More)
To identify the correlation between the phosphorylation ratios by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis and enzyme kinetics (Km, Vmax, and Vmax/Km) is important to understand whether MALDI-TOF MS can be applied for monitoring the properties of peptides that are substrates of protein kinases. The(More)
Gene therapy is a new medical approach for the treatment of tumors. For safe and efficient gene therapy, therapeutic genes need to be delivered efficiently into the target tumor cells. Development of gene delivery systems to specifically recognize and target tumor cells and to distinguish them from normal cells, especially in the same tissue or organ, is(More)
Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is frequently used to monitor phosphorylated peptides or protein kinase activities. However, few reports have compared a radioactivity assay with MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. We analyzed the phosphorylation ratios of 23 peptide substrates for G protein-coupled receptor(More)
The ionization of phosphorylated peptides is usually suppressed by non-phosphorylated peptides when alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) is used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, we examined the effect of diammonium citrate addition to the CHCA matrix(More)
We recently developed a novel tumor-targeted gene delivery system responding to hyperactivated intracellular signals. Polymeric carrier for gene delivery consists of hydrophilic neutral polymer as main chains and cationic peptide substrate for target enzyme as side chains, and was named polymer-peptide conjugate (PPC). Introduction of chondroitin sulfate(More)