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After focal cerebral ischemia, the infarct volume increases rapidly within acute infarct expansion (initial 12 to 24 h) and continues slowly during delayed infarct expansion (25 to 168 h). While acute infarct expansion represents progressive necrosis within the ischemic core, delayed infarct expansion starts as disseminated apoptotic cell death in a narrow(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related movement disorder that progresses over a period of 10 to 20 years. The existence of microglia in a long-lasting activated state, expressing MHC II, has been thought to play an important role in the progression of PD. PD mouse models, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), exhibit only(More)
Microglia express AMPA (α-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under pathological conditions. As low expression of GluA2 was reported in some(More)
Although astrocytes express gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype-A (GABAA) receptors in the mature brain, GABAA receptor expression in a cultivation state remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the alteration of astrocytic GABAA receptor expression in in vitro and in vivo studies to elucidate the relevance of astrocytic activation to reductions of(More)
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is characterized by gradual visual impairment owing to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated as a mechanism of RGC death in glaucoma. Consistent with this claim, we previously reported that glutamate/aspartate transporter(More)
The S100B is a Ca2+ binding proteins of EF-hand type and is produced primarily by astrocytes in the central nervous system. This protein has been implicated in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of a variety of intracellular functions such as protein phosphorylation, enzyme activities, cell proliferation and differentiation, dynamics of cytoskeleton(More)
Astrocytes play vital roles not only in the mechanical support of the central nervous system but also in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and in the transfer of nutritive substances to neuron. After ischemic brain injuries, it has been known that gliosis appears around degenerative regions and repairs these regions. Recently, accumulating evidence(More)
To clarify the anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of action of zonisamide (ZNS), we determined the effects of ZNS on tripartite synaptic transmission associated with kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) in cultured astrocytes, and transmission in both direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia using microdialysis. Interactions between cytokines [interferon-γ (IFNγ)(More)
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