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Marek's disease (MD) is a commercially important disease of chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Although avirulent MDV strains have been used for vaccination to prevent MD outbreaks, the protective mechanism of the vaccine has not been elucidated. In this study, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis using microarray was conducted in MDV-infected chickens(More)
Recent reports of toxoplasmosis in marine mammals raise concern that cold-blooded marine animals are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection. To examine the transmissibility of T. gondii to fish, we observed the development of T. gondii tachyzoites inoculated into oviduct epithelial cells of goldfish (Carassius auratus) microscopically in vitro.(More)
The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma(More)
An immunoinhibitory receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1), and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections and for neoplastic diseases. However, little has been reported for the functions of these molecules in chickens. Thus, in this study, their expressions and(More)
To examine the relationship between occurrence of vertical transmission and type 1/type 2 immune responses induced by Neospora caninum infection in BALB/c mice, pregnant (group 1 p) and non-pregnant mice (group 1 np) were inoculated with 2 x 10(6) of the N. caninum parasites and then we examined the vertical transmission rate and production of IFN-gamma and(More)
Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were assayed by ELISA in 22 experimentally inoculated domestic ducks. In addition, a serological assay was carried out at Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan, in 2004 and 2005, on 221 wild ducks of 5 species: Anas platyrhynchus (n = 111); A. poecilorhyncha (n = 27); A. acuta (n = 58); A. penelope (n = 16); and A. crecca (n = 9). Assays(More)
Marek's disease has been controlled byvaccination with avirulent strains of MDV. However, the protection mechanism following vaccination is not fully understood. In this study immune responses of PBMC and splenocytes derived from vaccinated chickens challenged with virulent MDV were examined using real-time PCR and ELISA. Higher levels of IFN-gamma(More)
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that causes malignant lymphomas in chickens. Recent field isolates of MDV have tended to exhibit increasing virulence, and MDV strains are currently classified into four categories based on their relative virulence. Meq, a putative MDV oncoprotein, resembles the Jun/Fos family of basic leucine zipper(More)
Brain and serum were collected from 120 and 12 free-ranging sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), respectively, from six regions in eastern Hokkaido during controlled hunts in the autumn of 2003. Brains were tested for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were measured by means(More)
PD-L2 is a ligand of the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1. Here, we report functional and expression analyses of PD-L2 in tumor lesions and spleens from chickens infected with gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, Marek’s disease virus), which induces malignant lymphomas in chickens. We show that the expression of IFN-γ protein was decreased in PBMCs and splenocytes(More)