Rik J. Williams

Learn More
The polymerase chain reaction was utilized to determine which of six cloned phospholipase A2 (PLA2) messenger RNAs (mRNAs), encoding four distinct low molecular weight forms of secretory PLA2 (PLA2-IB, PLA2-IIA, PLA2-IIC and PLA2-V), a calcium-dependent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-IV, cPLA2) and a calcium-independent high molecular weight PLA2(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bone that has been shown to be internalized by osteoblasts via a receptor-mediated pathway. Here we report that there are strain-dependent differences in the uptake of S. aureus by osteoblasts. An S. aureus septic arthritis isolate, LS-1, was internalized some 10-fold more than the laboratory strain 8325-4.(More)
The balance organs of the inner ear of vertebrates, found as single, large growths of aragonite ('otoliths') in fish and small clumped masses ('otoconia') of either aragonite (amphibians) or calcite (mammals), have long been regarded as polycrystalline and single crystals respectively. The use of ultra-high resolution electron microscopy and electron(More)
BACKGROUND When gambling opportunities are made available to the public in a given jurisdiction, some individuals participate occasionally and others more frequently. Among frequent gamblers, some individuals develop problematic involvement and some do not. This study addresses the association among demographic and social risk factors, frequency of gambling(More)
1. The production of chemokines by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, although the factors regulating chemokine production by these cells are incompletely characterized. 2. We describe the differential stimulation of interleukin-(IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and regulated on activation(More)
1H-NMR and circular dichroism studies have been carried out on osteocalcin, a 49-residue, calcium-binding protein, the sequence of which contains a disulphide bridge, a proline-rich segment and three gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues. These latter residues have been proposed to lie on one face of an alpha helix and interact with the mineral phase,(More)
In biomedical magnetic induction tomography (MIT), measurement precision may be improved by incorporating some form of primary field compensation/cancellation scheme. Schemes which have been described previously include gradiometric approaches and the use of 'back-off' coils. In each of these methods, however, the primary field cancellation was achieved(More)
In an ideal magnetic induction tomography (MIT) system, the coupling between the coils and the sample is entirely by the magnetic field. In a practical system, unwanted electric-field (capacitive) coupling can also exist and cause large errors in the MIT measurements unless the hardware is designed carefully. A series of tests was carried out to assess the(More)
The two accompanying papers describe the assignment of methyl-containing spin-systems in the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of tuna ferricytochrome c and tuna ferrocytochrome c. At present, 104 resonances from 208 C-H protons are assigned in both oxidation states. In this paper, the difference in chemical shift of a resonance between the two(More)
Using site-directed mutagenesis, it is possible to prepare many mutants of a protein in a short time, and to uncover differences in function. To understand the changes in function, it is essential to understand the effect(s) of the mutation in terms of structural and dynamic changes. It is particularly important to establish a rapid method for comparing the(More)