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The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is integral in development, wound healing and stem cell behaviour, and contributes pathologically to fibrosis and cancer progression. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour is mediated by key transcription(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Although this pathway is inherently simple, combinatorial(More)
During development and in the context of different morphogenetic events, epithelial cells undergo a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition or transdifferentiation (EMT). In this process, the cells lose their epithelial characteristics, including their polarity and specialized cell-cell contacts, and acquire a migratory behavior, allowing them(More)
The TGF-beta family comprises many structurally related differentiation factors that act through a heteromeric receptor complex at the cell surface and an intracellular signal transducing Smad complex. The receptor complex consists of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Upon phosphorylation by the receptors, Smad complexes(More)
Epithelial and hematopoietic cells have a high turnover and their progenitor cells divide continuously, making them prime targets for genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to cell transformation and tumorigenesis. The consequent changes in cell behavior and responsiveness result not only from genetic alterations such as activation of oncogenes or(More)
The secreted polypeptide transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) exerts its multiple activities through type I and II cell surface receptors. In epithelial cells, activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathways leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in extracellular matrix production. TGF-beta is widely expressed during(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 is a potent growth inhibitor, with tumor-suppressing activity. Cancers are often refractile to this growth inhibition either because of genetic loss of TGF-beta signaling components or, more commonly, because of downstream perturbation of the signaling pathway, such as by Ras activation. Carcinomas often secrete excess(More)
The embryonic stem cell–specific cell cycle–regulating (ESCC) family of microRNAs (miRNAs) enhances reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human ESCC miRNA orthologs hsa-miR-302b and hsa-miR-372 promote human somatic cell reprogramming. Furthermore, these miRNAs repress multiple target genes,(More)
Since the discovery that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can accelerate opening of the eyelids, the EGF receptor (EGF-R) has been extensively studied and is now considered to be a prototype tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of EGF or of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) or other related factors activates the receptor and induces cell proliferation(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW TGF-β acts as a potent driver of cancer progression through the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal phenotype, leading to enhanced motility and invasion. Recent reports highlight the fundamental roles of TGF-β-induced EMT in multiple aspects of cancer progression. In this(More)