Riichiro Hira

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We developed a method that uses Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) for transcranial optogenetic stimulation. This method is based on scanning a light beam over the brain, thereby photostimulating ChR2-expressing neurons in intact mice. As a proof of principle, we applied this technique to the motor cortex of transgenic mice expressing ChR2 in cortical pyramidal(More)
The primary motor cortex (M1) possesses two intermediate layers upstream of the motor-output layer: layer 2/3 (L2/3) and layer 5a (L5a). Although repetitive training often improves motor performance and movement coding by M1 neuronal ensembles, it is unclear how neuronal activities in L2/3 and L5a are reorganized during motor task learning. We conducted(More)
Functional clustering of neurons is frequently observed in the motor cortex. However, it is unknown if, when, and how fine-scale (<100 μm) functional clusters form relative to voluntary forelimb movements. In addition, the implications of clustering remain unclear. To address these issues, we conducted two-photon calcium imaging of mouse layer 2/3 motor(More)
To understand the fine-scale structures and functional properties of individual neurons in vivo, we developed and validated a rapid genetic technique that enables simultaneous investigation of multiple neuronal properties with single-cell resolution in the living rodent brain. Our technique PASME (promoter-assisted sparse-neuron multiple-gene labeling using(More)
Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of channelrhodopsins, behind various neuron-specific promoters. These mice permit photoinhibition or photostimulation both in vitro and in(More)
Animals rapidly adapt to environmental change. To reveal how cortical microcircuits are rapidly reorganized when an animal recognizes novel reward contingency, we conduct two-photon calcium imaging of layer 2/3 motor cortex neurons in mice and simultaneously reinforce the activity of a single cortical neuron with water delivery. Here we show that when the(More)
Interactions between distinct motor cortical areas are essential for coordinated motor behaviors. In rodents, the motor cortical forelimb areas are divided into at least two distinct areas: the rostral forelimb area (RFA) and the caudal forelimb area (CFA). The RFA is thought to be an equivalent of the premotor cortex (PM) in primates, whereas the CFA is(More)
Movements of animals are composed of two fundamental dynamics: discrete and rhythmic movements. Although the movements with distinct dynamics are thought to be differently processed in the CNS, it is unclear how they are represented in the cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated the cortical representation of movement dynamics by developing prolonged(More)
We report here two cases in a family with pleomorphic clinical features which include mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, stroke-like episodes, episodic disturbances of consciousness and other multisystemic abnormalities. The other signs observed in multisystemic abnormalities were ophthalmoplegia, short stature, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus,(More)
K(+) channels permit more than one ion within their conducting pathway at any given moment and show a saturating single-file behavior. The conduction of Rb(+) shows an unusual behavior, a so-called "Rb(+) anomaly," and it has been used to probe the mechanism of the ion conduction through K(+)-selective channels. Under the bi-ionic condition of K(+) and(More)