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Substantial changes are needed to achieve a more targeted and strategic approach to investment in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic that will yield long-term dividends. Until now, advocacy for resources has been done on the basis of a commodity approach that encouraged scaling up of numerous strategies in parallel, irrespective of their relative(More)
The benefits of integrating programmes that emphasize specific interventions into health systems to improve health outcomes have been widely debated. This debate has been driven by narrow binary considerations of integrated (horizontal) versus non-integrated (vertical) programmes, and characterized by polarization of views with protagonists for and against(More)
Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that(More)
Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia. DESIGN Case-control study of exposure to a variety of risk factors before and during the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. SETTING Large city in Russia. PARTICIPANTS Cases were 334 consecutive adults diagnosed as having culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis between 1(More)
Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with(More)
Few studies have examined the personal and social consequences of stigma associated with HIV infection in Russia, a country with one of the most rapidly advancing HIV epidemics globally. By May 2005, Samara Oblast, Russia had 24,022 notified seropositive individuals. Focus-group discussions with randomly sampled seropositive and seronegative individuals,(More)
BACKGROUND The world is short of 7.2 million health-care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource-limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term illnesses affect a significant proportion of the population in developed and developing countries. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), may present convenient, cost-effective ways of supporting self-management and improving patients' self-efficacy skills through,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine variability in interpretation of chest radiographs among tuberculosis specialists, radiologists, and respiratory specialists. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING Tuberculosis and respiratory disease services, Samara region, Russian Federation. PARTICIPANTS 101 clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary(More)