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Substantial changes are needed to achieve a more targeted and strategic approach to investment in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic that will yield long-term dividends. Until now, advocacy for resources has been done on the basis of a commodity approach that encouraged scaling up of numerous strategies in parallel, irrespective of their relative(More)
The frameworks and methods used for analysis, monitoring and evaluation of communicable disease control vary greatly. Although a number of manuals exist instruments for a detailed analysis of wider health system context are lacking. This is surprising given that the success of vertical programmes is often determined by the constraints of health systems. The(More)
Alternatively, complete an online request form for documentation, health information, or for permission to quote or translate, on the Regional Office web site The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the(More)
A longstanding debate on health systems organization relates to benefits of integrating health programmes that emphasize specific interventions into mainstream health systems to increase access and improve health outcomes. This debate has long been characterized by polarization of views and ideologies, with protagonists for and against integration arguing(More)
Debates around health systems have dominated the international health agenda for several decades. A wealth of contributions has been made to define, describe and explain health systems through multiple conceptual frameworks proposed to date. The array of health systems frameworks arguably provides an opportunity for identifying different appropriate(More)
This is a Health Evidence Network (HEN) synthesis report on the advantages and disadvantages of restructuring a health care system to be more focused on primary care services. The available evidence demonstrates some advantages for health systems that rely relatively more on primary health care and general practice in comparison with systems more based on(More)
In May, 2004, the border of the European Union (EU) will shift eastward such that the new frontier will be made up by Ukraine, Belarus, and a considerably longer Russian border. Here, we discuss three issues: first, the factors that have contributed to the growth of communicable disease in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus; second, how public health systems have(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical management of tuberculosis in Russia involves lengthy hospitalizations, in contrast to the recommended strategy advocated by the World Health Organization. METHODS We used Fourier transform, spectral analysis and Student's t-test to analyse periodic and seasonal variations in admission and discharge rates for tuberculosis(More)
Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that(More)