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The mammalian habenula consists of the medial and lateral habenulae. Recent behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggested that the lateral habenula plays a pivotal role in controlling motor and cognitive behaviors by influencing the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Despite the functional significance, manipulating neural activity(More)
BACKGROUND Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is(More)
The asymmetry of mouth morphology, in which the mouth opens either leftward or rightward, is a unique example of antisymmetry that is widely found in fishes, such as Tanganyikan scale-eating cichlids, herbivorous cichlids, and the Japanese freshwater goby. This dimorphism is thought to be heritable in a Mendelian manner similar to that of the dominance of(More)
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