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When people communicate in their native languages using machine translation, they face various problems in constructing common ground. This study investigates the difficulties of constructing common ground when multiparty groups (consisting of more than two language communities) communicate using machine translation. We compose triads whose members come(More)
Our proposed “Language Grid” infrastructure supports multilingual communication by combining in new way language resources, such as machine translators, morphological analyzers, and dictionaries specific to user communities. We developed the Language Grid as a language infrastructure on the Internet. The Language Grid enables user communities to combine two(More)
あらまし 言語グリッドは,「言語資源から言語サービスへ」という大きな転換を目標として,2006年から 5年 間をかけて開発されたサービス指向の多言語基盤である.辞書などのデータや機械翻訳などのソフトウェアが言 語資源として CDやダウンロードサービスで配布されている現状から,インターネットに接続すれば利用できる 言語サービスへと転換する試みである.この論文では,我々が開発した,言語サービスの収集と共有を可能とす る「基盤ソフトウェア」と,基盤ソフトウェアに登録された言語サービスを容易に利用可能とする「異文化コラ ボレーション環境」を報告する.また,複数の組織が多言語基盤を協調して運営する「連邦制運営」を提案し,(More)
To retrieve pictograms having semantically ambiguous interpretations, we propose a semantic relevance measure which uses pictogram interpretation words collected from a web survey. The proposed measure uses ratio and similarity information contained in a set of pictogram interpretation words to (1) retrieve pictograms having implicit meaning but not(More)
This paper studies the patterns of cultural differences observed in pictogram interpretation. We conducted a 14-month online survey in the U.S. and Japan to ask the meaning of 120 pictograms used in a pictogram communication system. A total of 935 respondents in the U.S. and 543 respondents in Japan participated in the survey to submit pictogram(More)
Since participants at both end of the communication channel must share common pictogram interpretation to communicate, the pictogram selection task must consider both participants’ pictogram interpretations. Pictogram interpretation, however, can be ambiguous. To assist the selection of pictograms more likely to be interpreted as intended, we propose a(More)
The educational system has gradually shifted from a face-to-face to an e-learning system, which has become prevalent in advanced countries with the advance of information technology, and connection of global networks. Accordingly, a growing demand is emerging for more reliable individual certification with technical precision in order to measure and record(More)