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BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. The lack of an adequate laboratory test is a major barrier for diagnosis, especially during the early stages of illness, when antibiotic therapy is most effective. Therefore, there is a critical need for an efficient diagnostic test for this life threatening disease. METHODOLOGY In order(More)
RATIONALE Subcutaneous implantable electrocardiographs are highly effective in detecting covert atrial fibrillation (AF) in cryptogenic stroke. However, these invasive devices are not indicated for all cryptogenic stroke patients, and noninvasive improvements over conventional Holter-type ambulatory electrocardiography are needed. We evaluated the clinical(More)
Progression of clinical symptoms and cerebellar atrophy may vary among subtypes of spinocerebellar degeneration and multiple system atrophy. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to demonstrate the relationship between the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) score and cerebellar volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a(More)
BACKGROUND We report a case of steroid-resistant Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) with recurrent bilateral painful ophthalmoplegia, accompanied with sphenoid sinusitis, pituitary abscess, and an aneurysm arising from the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. CASE DESCRIPTION A 53-year-old woman suffered severe left painful ophthalmoplegia. A(More)
T he renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system plays a piv-otal role in both body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. 1 The production of angiotensin II (A-II) and the expression of angiotensinogen in various tissue and organ systems stress the importance of the local paracrine renin–angiotensin system (RAS). 2–4 Renin belongs to a family of aspartyl proteases(More)
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