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During the process of autophagy, cytoplasmic materials are sequestered by double-membrane structures, the autophagosomes, and then transported to a lytic compartment to be degraded. One of the most fundamental questions about autophagy involves the origin of the autophagosomal membranes. In this study, we focus on the intracellular dynamics of Atg9, a(More)
In cycling tissues, adult stem cells may be lost and subsequently replaced to ensure homeostasis. To examine the frequency of stem cell replacement, we analyzed the population dynamics of labeled stem cells in steady-state mouse spermatogenesis. Our results show that spermatogenic stem cells are continuously replaced, on average within 2 weeks. The analysis(More)
Autophagy is a degradation system of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles via formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, autophagosomes are formed via the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) in a manner dependent on Atg proteins. Under nutrient-rich condition, Atg9 is recruited to the PAS by binding to(More)
The large-scale mouse mutagenesis with ENU has provided forward-genetic resources for functional genomics. The frozen sperm archive of ENU-mutagenized generation-1 (G1) mice could also provide a "mutant mouse library" that allows us to conduct reverse genetics in any particular target genes. We have archived frozen sperm as well as genomic DNA from 9224 G1(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) has been reported to have a good prognosis, but there still might be the potential risk of sudden death. METHODS AND RESULTS The 46 consecutive children (mean age 11.7 ± 3.4 years) with idiopathic VT were enrolled in this study. Monomorphic VT was detected in 39 patients and polymorphic VT in 7 patients.(More)
We present a case of a 9-month-old girl in whom malignant polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was successfully controlled by radiofrequency catheter ablation under guidance with a three-dimensional mapping system. The VTs originated from the left ventricular lateral wall, left ventricular anterior wall, and left ventricular apex. At least six types of(More)
BACKGROUND Catheter ablation inside the Koch's triangle has a risk for complete atrioventricular block. METHODS AND RESULTS The anatomic size of the coronary sinus (CS) and His bundle (HB) in children and the distance between them was studied using a 3-dimensional electroanatomical mapping system (CARTO). Fifty-three children (mean age, 11.8+/-3.7 years)(More)
Wild male roach (Rutilus rutilus) living in U.K. rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents from wastewater treatment works show feminized responses and have a reduced reproductive capability, but the chemical causation of sexual disruption in the roach has not been established. Feminized responses were induced in male roach exposed to environmentally(More)
Wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) inhabiting UK rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents from wastewater treatment works show altered sexual development, including intersex, and this can impact negatively on their reproductive capabilities. The molecular events underlying these disruptions in gender assignment, however, are still poorly understood. In this(More)
BACKGROUND This study was performed to investigate the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS AND RESULTS Electrophysiologic studies (EPS) were performed in 40 patients (mean age: 10.3+/-5.1 years; 30 males, 10 females) with KD who had severe to moderate coronary artery disease. Clinical arrhythmias were documented in 4(More)