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The non-structural X protein, HBx, of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is assumed to play an important role in HBV replication. Woodchuck hepatitis virus X protein is indispensable for virus replication, but the duck hepatitis B virus X protein is not. In this study, we investigated whether the HBx protein is indispensable for HBV replication in vivo using human(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at greater risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to identify virus-specific serum microRNA profiles associated with liver function and disease progression. Microarray analysis of serum microRNAs was performed using the(More)
UNLABELLED Disease-specific serum miRNA profiles may serve as biomarkers and might reveal potential new avenues for therapy. An HBV-specific serum miRNA profile associated with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) particles has recently been reported, and AGO2 and miRNAs have been shown to be stably associated with HBsAg in serum. We identified HBV-associated serum(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Single nucleotide polymorphisms within the interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4) locus are strongly associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and early viral response to interferon therapy. Interaction between host genotype and amino acid substitutions might also influence the risk of antiviral resistance in(More)
APOBEC3 proteins function as part of innate antiviral immunity and induce G to A hypermutation in retroviruses and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes. Whether APOBEC3 proteins affect viruses that replicate without a reverse transcription step is unknown. TT virus (TTV), known to present in serum of healthy individuals and HBV carriers, has a single-stranded(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with increased expression of microRNA-122. Serum microRNA-122 and microRNA-22 levels were analyzed in 198 patients with chronic HBV who underwent liver biopsy and were compared with quantitative measurements of HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, and other clinical and histological findings. Levels of serum microRNA-122(More)
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