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G-CSF is a potent hematopoietic factor that enhances survival and drives differentiation of myeloid lineage cells, resulting in the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Here, we show that G-CSF passes the intact blood-brain barrier and reduces infarct volume in 2 different rat models of acute stroke. G-CSF displays strong anti-apoptotic activity in(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in progressive loss of motoneurons, motor weakness and death within 1-5 years after disease onset. Therapeutic options remain limited despite a substantial number of approaches that have been tested clinically. In particular, various neurotrophic factors have been(More)
Signaling cascades integrate extracellular stimuli primarily through regulated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Intracellular signal transduction strictly depends on PPIs occurring at the membrane and in the cytosol. To monitor constitutive and regulated protein interactions within living mammalian cells, we have developed a biological assay termed(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of cells of the myeloid lineage, which was cloned more than 20 years ago. Here we uncovered a novel function of GM-CSF in the central nervous system (CNS). We identified the GM-CSF alpha-receptor as an(More)
Vacuole fusion requires a coordinated cascade of priming, docking, and fusion. SNARE proteins have been implicated in the fusion itself, although their precise role in the cascade remains unclear. We now report that the vacuolar SNAP-23 homologue Vam7p is a mobile element of the SNARE complex, which moves from an initial association with the cis-SNARE(More)
Homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles requires a regulated sequence of events. During priming, Sec18p disassembles cis-SNARE complexes. The HOPS complex, which is initially associated with the cis-SNARE complex, then mediates tethering. Finally, SNAREs assemble into trans-complexes before the membranes fuse. The t-SNARE of the vacuole, Vam3p, plays a central(More)
Activated fatty acids stimulate budding and fusion in several cell-free assays for vesicular transport. This stimulation is thought to be due to protein palmitoylation, but relevant substrates have not yet been identified. We now report that Vac8p, a protein known to be required for vacuole inheritance, becomes palmitoylated when isolated yeast vacuoles are(More)
Based on the similarity of genes which code for guanine-nucleotide binding protein- (G-protein-) coupled receptors, cDNA clones encoding new members of the receptor family have been isolated from Bombyx mori and Heliothis virescens. The deduced protein structures exhibit highest similarity to tyramine/octopamine and serotonin receptors of Drosophila. One of(More)
BACKGROUND G-CSF has been shown in animal models of stroke to promote functional and structural regeneration of the central nervous system. It thus might present a therapy to promote recovery in the chronic stage after stroke. METHODS Here, we assessed the safety and tolerability of G-CSF in chronic stroke patients with concomitant vascular disease, and(More)
Assembly of the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin/VAMP, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 to binary and ternary complexes is important for docking and/or fusion of presynaptic vesicles to the neuronal plasma membrane prior to regulated neurotransmitter release. Despite the well characterized structure of their cytoplasmic assembly domains, little is known about the role of(More)