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The recent landmark Phase III clinical trial with a VEGF-specific antibody suggests that antiangiogenic therapy must be combined with cytotoxic therapy for the treatment of solid tumors. However, there are no guidelines for optimal scheduling of these therapies. Here we show that VEGFR2 blockade creates a "normalization window"--a period during which(More)
Elevated interstitial fluid pressure, a hallmark of solid tumors, can compromise the delivery of therapeutics to tumors. Here we show that blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by DC101 (a VEGF-receptor-2 antibody) decreases interstitial fluid pressure, not by restoring lymphatic function, but by producing a morphologically and(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the HIF transcription factors can both activate and inhibit gene expression. Here we show that HIF1 regulates the expression of mir-210 in a variety of tumor types through a hypoxia-responsive element. Expression analysis in primary head and neck tumor samples indicates that mir-210 may serve as an in vivo marker for(More)
Preclinical and clinical evidence shows that antiangiogenic agents can decrease tumor vessel permeability and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in a process of vessel "normalization." The resulting normalized vasculature has more efficient perfusion, but little is known about how tumor IFP and interstitial fluid velocity (IFV) are affected by changes in(More)
Renal cell carcinoma is a highly malignant and often fatal disease of the kidney. It is difficult to treat, often because metastases are common at the time of presentation. Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a newly discovered member of the PDGF family; its function in tumor progression is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression level of(More)
Transport parameters determine the access of drugs to tumors. However, technical difficulties preclude the measurement of these parameters deep inside living tissues. To this end, we adapted and further optimized two-photon fluorescence correlation microscopy (TPFCM) for in vivo measurement of transport parameters in tumors. TPFCM extends the detectable(More)
This paper presents methods to model complex vasculature in three-dimensional (3-D) images using cylindroidal superellipsoids, along with robust estimation and detection algorithms for automated image analysis. This model offers an explicit, low-order parameterization, enabling joint estimation of boundary, centerlines, and local pose. It provides a(More)
Phage display of peptide libraries has become a powerful tool for the evolution of novel ligands that bind virtually any protein target. However, the rules governing conformational preferences in natural peptides are poorly understood, and consequently, structure-activity relationships in these molecules can be difficult to define. In an effort to simplify(More)
Recent improvements in diagnostic methods have opened avenues for detection and treatment of (pre)malignant lesions at early stages. However, due to the lack of spontaneous tumor models that both mimic human carcinogenesis and allow direct optical imaging of the vasculature, little is known about the function of blood and lymphatic vessels during the early(More)