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We examine whether neighborhood alcohol outlet density is associated with reduced social capital and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived neighborhood safety. Hierarchical models from a random sample of Los Angeles, CA, and Louisiana residents (N=2,881) from 217 census tracts were utilized. Substantial proportions of the variance in collective(More)
AIMS The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year-sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Many new HIV-1 infections in the USA occur in injection drug users (IDUs). HIV-1seroconversion of IDUs is mainly associated with injection-related risk factors. Harm- reduction programmes concentrate on injection-risk behaviour. We aimed to establish whether injection or sexual risk factors, or both, were associated with HIV-1antibody(More)
Dietary patterns may be influenced by the availability and accessibility within stores of different types of foods. However, little is known about the amount of shelf space used for healthy and unhealthy foods in different types of stores. We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores(More)
OBJECTIVES This study deter- mined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among street-recruited injection drug users and crack cocaine smokers. METHODS An analysis was performed on HIV serologies and risk behaviors of 6402 injection drug users and 3383 crack smokers in 16 US municipalities in 1992 and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine correlates of sexual risk among injection drug users (IDUs). STUDY A total of 1445 IDUs were recruited from California syringe exchange programs. RESULTS Consistent condom use was independently related to being HIV-positive, having multiple sex partners, not having a steady partner, not sharing(More)
OBJECTIVE Community-based participatory research is recommended for research on health disparities and to improve uptake of clinical research findings. We describe the development of a multicenter consortium designed to support a community agency-academic partner infrastructure to support community-based, health-services research on multiple sources of(More)
Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and outcomes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in(More)
AIMS Injection drug use is a major risk factor for HIV and hepatitis infections. Whereas programs to prevent new infections have focused on HIV, they have generally neglected hepatitis B and C. This study was designed to examine the interrelationships among HIV and hepatitis knowledge, risky drug preparation and injection practices, and participation in(More)
Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. "Addiction specificity" pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper(More)