Ricky Neville Bluthenthal

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BACKGROUND Many new HIV-1 infections in the USA occur in injection drug users (IDUs). HIV-1seroconversion of IDUs is mainly associated with injection-related risk factors. Harm- reduction programmes concentrate on injection-risk behaviour. We aimed to establish whether injection or sexual risk factors, or both, were associated with HIV-1antibody(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if adequate syringe coverage --"one shot for one syringe"--among syringe exchange program (SEP) clients is associated with injection-related HIV risk behaviors and syringe disposal. DESIGN HIV risk assessments with 1577 injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from 24 SEPs in California between 2001 and 2003. Individual syringe(More)
OBJECTIVE Community-based participatory research is recommended for research on health disparities and to improve uptake of clinical research findings. We describe the development of a multicenter consortium designed to support a community agency-academic partner infrastructure to support community-based, health-services research on multiple sources of(More)
We examine whether neighborhood alcohol outlet density is associated with reduced social capital and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived neighborhood safety. Hierarchical models from a random sample of Los Angeles, CA, and Louisiana residents (N=2,881) from 217 census tracts were utilized. Substantial proportions of the variance in collective(More)
Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and outcomes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether syringe exchange program use is associated with cessation of syringe sharing among high-risk injection drug users. DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1992 and 1996, street-recruited injection drug users were interviewed and received HIV testing and counseling semi-annually, as part of a dynamic cohort study. We examined a cohort of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine prevalence of and risk factors for nonfatal recent overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users. METHODS From August 1998 through July 1999, 1427 heroin injectors were recruited from 6 inner-city neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area, Calif, and interviewed. Factors hypothesized to be associated(More)
Dietary patterns may be influenced by the availability and accessibility within stores of different types of foods. However, little is known about the amount of shelf space used for healthy and unhealthy foods in different types of stores. We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores(More)
This study tests the effect of neighborhood changes on gonorrhea rates. Prior studies that indicate gonorrhea rates are associated with alcohol outlet density and neighborhood deterioration have been cross-sectional and cannot establish causality. After the 1992 Civil Unrest in Los Angeles, 270 alcohol outlets surrendered their licenses due to arson and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine factors associated with syringe and injection supply sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) in a community with an illegal underground syringe exchange program (SEP). METHODS From 1992 to 1995, semiannual cross-sectional samples of IDUs were recruited in Oakland, California. To account for multiple observations from the same(More)