Rick O'Brien

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The HIV epidemic has led to large increases in the frequency of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis, which has poor treatment outcomes and excessive early mortality compared with smear-positive disease. We used a combination of systematic review, document analysis, and global expert opinion to review the extent of this problem. We also looked at policies(More)
New diagnostics for tuberculosis are urgently needed to replace or facilitate acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy for the identification of smear-positive cases, and to improve the diagnosis of AFB smear-negative cases. These need to be appropriate for use in low income countries. Tests to replace or facilitate AFB microscopy must offer improvements to this(More)
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the feasibility, cost and performance of rapid tuberculosis (TB) molecular and culture systems, in a high multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) middle-income region (Samara, Russia) and provide evidence for WHO policy change. METHODS Performance and cost evaluation was conducted to compare the BACTEC MGIT 960 system for culture and drug(More)
UNLABELLED Rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H) are key first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Failure to detect resistance to these two drugs early results in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes. The study purpose was to validate the use of the GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) to detect resistance to R and H in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains(More)
This article raises ethical issues that result if individuals, during the course of research to measure the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, are identified with the disease but are not provided with or referred for appropriate treatment. It draws attention to and applauds recently published World Health Organization guidelines on the subject.(More)
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from(More)
SETTING The Ethics Advisory Group (EAG) of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) was established in 2004 to provide ethical guidance and promote ethical standards within The Union, including reviews of proposed research projects associated with The Union. OBJECTIVES To describe research proposal reviews conducted by the(More)
BACKGROUND Policies involving the use of involuntary incarceration for tuberculosis (TB) are highly ethically controversial. To encourage ethical reflection within the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), the Ethics Advisory Group (EAG) surveyed members regarding their attitudes and values relating to involuntary(More)