Rick M. Maizels

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Immune regulation by parasites is a global concept that includes suppression, diversion, and conversion of the host immune response to the benefit of the pathogen. While many microparasites escape immune attack by antigenic variation or sequestration in specialized niches, helminths appear to thrive in exposed extracellular locations, such as the(More)
Immunology was founded by studying the body's response to infectious microorganisms, and yet microbial prokaryotes only tell half the story of the immune system. Eukaryotic pathogens--protozoa, helminths, fungi and ectoparasites--have all been powerful selective forces for immune evolution. Often, as with lethal protozoal parasites, the focus has been on(More)
Helminths are masterful immunoregulators. A characteristic feature of helminth infection is a Th2-dominated immune response, but stimulation of immunoregulatory cell populations, such as regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages, is equally common. Typically, Th1/17 immunity is blocked and productive effector responses are muted, allowing(More)
The vertebrate immune system has evolved in concert with a broad range of infectious agents, including ubiquitous helminth (worm) parasites. The constant pressure of helminth infections has been a powerful force in shaping not only how immunity is initiated and maintained, but also how the body self-regulates and controls untoward immune responses to(More)
Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with(More)
Foxp3-expressing regulatory T (T reg) cells have been implicated in parasite-driven inhibition of host immunity during chronic infection. We addressed whether parasites can directly induce T reg cells. Foxp3 expression was stimulated in naive Foxp3⁻ T cells in mice infected with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. In vitro, parasite-secreted(More)
Our understanding of the global impact and cost of human toxocariasis is poor because there is insufficient clinical awareness and no clear repository for the efficacy of clinical, laboratory and treatment interventions. Uniform clinical and laboratory investigative approaches maximize disease diagnosis. International collaboration is required to develop(More)
The secretome of a parasite in its definitive host can be considered to be its genome in trans, to the extent that secreted products encoded by the parasite fulfill their function in the host milieu. The 'extended phenotype' of the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, is of particular interest because of the evidence that infection results in potent(More)
In mammalian systems RNA can move between cells via vesicles. Here we demonstrate that the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which infects mice, secretes vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs) and Y RNAs as well as a nematode Argonaute protein. These vesicles are of intestinal origin and are enriched for homologues of mammalian exosome(More)
Allergic diseases mediated by T helper type (Th) 2 cell immune responses are rising dramatically in most developed countries. Exaggerated Th2 cell reactivity could result, for example, from diminished exposure to Th1 cell-inducing microbial infections. Epidemiological studies, however, indicate that Th2 cell-stimulating helminth parasites may also(More)