Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt… (More)
Many pelagic species, particularly teleost fish, have silvered lateral surfaces that are thought to primarily serve as a form of camouflage. The underlying argument is that the underwater light field is cylindrically symmetrical around the vertical axis; thus a vertical mirror reflects a region of the water column that matches the region directly behind the… (More)
Optical properties of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were examined in nitrate-limited semicontin-uous cultures for growth rates (h) varying from 0.22 to 1.32 d-l. Two experiments were conducted at each growth rate in which sampling of the culture was done at either the dark-to-light (D-L) or light-to-dark (L-D) transition of a 12-h photoperiod.… (More)
Correction: The reference citations in the Materials and Methods section have been corrected.