Rick A Bevins

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Rationale: Among the various experimental protocols that have been used to measure drug reward in laboratory animals, conditioned place preference (CPP) has been one of the most popular. However, a number of controversial issues have surrounded the use of this experimental protocol. Objective: The present review provides a theoretical overview of some(More)
Rats and mice have a tendency to interact more with a novel object than with a familiar object. This tendency has been used by behavioral pharmacologists and neuroscientists to study learning and memory. A popular protocol for such research is the object-recognition task. Animals are first placed in an apparatus and allowed to explore an object. After a(More)
Little is known about the processes that mediate acquisition and expression of conditioned associations between contextual cues and psychomotor effects of nicotine. In four separate experiments using rats, an environment repeatedly paired with nicotine acquired the ability to elicit increases in activity even in the absence of drug. This conditioned effect(More)
In Pavlovian conditioning research, nicotine is typically conceptualized as the unconditioned stimulus (US) that becomes associated with an exteroceptive conditioned stimulus (CS). This research has not explored the possibility that nicotine can also function as a CS. The present research examined whether nicotine served as a CS for the presence (CS+) or(More)
The present experiments examined whether a nicotine state could set the occasion for a pairing between visual cues and a rewarding outcome in rats. Following nicotine administration, presentation of a conditional stimulus (CS; light-on) was followed by brief access to a sucrose solution. When saline was administered, the same CS was presented but was not(More)
Previous work has shown that individual differences in locomotor activity in an inescapable novel environment can predict acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. The current study examined whether individual differences in approach to novelty in a free choice test could also predict amphetamine self-administration. Further, the current study(More)
Compulsive smoking is a worldwide public health problem. Although research has confirmed the importance of associative learning processes in nicotine addiction, therapies targeting nicotine-associated cues still have a high relapse rate. Most theories conceptualize nicotine as an 'outcome' that reinforces behaviors and/or changes the affective value of(More)
In a choice situation, rats given repeated access to novel objects in one of two distinct environments display an increase in preference for the novelty-paired environment. The experiments in this present report extend the generality of this effect to new procedures. Further, this shift in preference depends on object novelty; no systematic shift in(More)
Although past research has shown that the interoceptive effects of nicotine serve as a conditional stimulus using sucrose as the unconditioned stimulus, very little is known about the importance of dose. Accordingly, rats were assigned to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg nicotine base/kg as the training dose. Sucrose (4-s access) was delivered 36 times on nicotine(More)
 Although previous studies have shown that dopamine (DA) antagonists block amphetamine reward, these studies have utilized animal models that involve repeated exposures to amphetamine. The present investigation examined the effect of DA antagonists on single-trial conditioned place preference (CPP) produced by acute intravenous (IV) amphetamine in rats. In(More)