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The segmentation motor activity of the gut that facilitates absorption of nutrients was first described in the late 19th century, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. The dominant theory suggests alternate excitation and inhibition from the enteric nervous system. Here we demonstrate that typical segmentation can occur(More)
Limited microbial exposure is suggested to underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent countries, and bacterial diversity seems to be more important than specific bacteria taxa. Prospective studies indicate that the gut microbiota composition during the first months of life influences allergy development, and support the theory that factors(More)
Gut commensals modulate host immune, endocrine, and metabolic functions. They also affect peripheral and central neural reflexes and function. We have previously shown that daily ingestion of Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) for 9 d inhibits the pseudoaffective cardiac response and spinal single-fiber discharge evoked by visceral distension, and decreases(More)
This paper describes the development of a model-based boundary recognition system for transrectal prostate ultrasonographic images. It consists of two techniques: boundary modeling and boundary searching with model constraints. To achieve higher specificity of the model, a method called feature modeling is derived from the existing point distribution(More)
The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom(More)
PURPOSE Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) can improve dose conformality and better spare normal tissue over passive scattering techniques, but range uncertainties complicate its use, particularly for moving targets. We report our early experience with IMPT for thoracic malignancies in terms of motion analysis and management, plan optimization and(More)
PURPOSE Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans are normally generated utilizing multiple field optimization (MFO) techniques. Similar to photon based IMRT, MFO allows for the utilization of a simultaneous integrated boost in which multiple target volumes are treated to discrete doses simultaneously, potentially improving plan quality and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to validate the use of HPlusQA, spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) dose calculation software developed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, as second-check dose calculation software for patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA). The authors also showed how HPlusQA can be used within the current PSQA(More)
PURPOSE Spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) using multifield optimization (MFO) can generate highly conformal dose distributions, but it is more sensitive to setup and range uncertainties than SSPT using single-field optimization (SFO). The authors compared the two optimization methods for the treatment of head and neck cancer with bilateral targets and(More)
PURPOSE The clinical advantage of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may be diminished by range and patient setup uncertainties. We evaluated the effectiveness of robust optimization that incorporates uncertainties into the treatment planning optimization algorithm for treatment of base of skull cancers. METHODS AND MATERIALS We compared 2 IMPT(More)