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The dimethylmethylene blue assay for sulphated glycosaminoglycans has found wide acceptance as a quick and simple method of measuring the sulphated glycosaminoglycan content of tissues and fluids. The available assay methods have lacked specificity for sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the presence of other polyanions, however, and have not discriminated(More)
A rapid spectrophotometric procedure is described for the estimation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cartilage cultures. Papain digestion of tissue or culture medium provides glycosaminoglycans in solution for assay; an aliquot of the digest is mixed with the dye 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue. The assay is based on the metachromatic shift in absorption(More)
We have previously assigned an integrin alpha(2)beta(1)-recognition site in collagen I to the sequence, GFOGERGVEGPOGPA (O = Hyp), corresponding to residues 502-516 of the alpha(1)(I) chain and located in the fragment alpha(1)(I)CB3 (Knight, C. G., Morton, L. F., Onley, D. J., Peachey, A. R., Messent, A. J., Smethurst, P. A., Tuckwell, D. S., Farndale, R.(More)
In addition to their pivotal role in thrombosis and wound repair, platelets participate in inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of platelets in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. We identified platelet microparticles--submicrometer vesicles elaborated by activated platelets--in joint fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and(More)
The collagen type I-derived fragment alpha1(I)CB3 is known to recognize the platelet collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1 as effectively as the parent collagen, although it lacks platelet-aggregatory activity. We have synthesized the fragment as seven overlapping peptides that spontaneously assemble into triple helices. On the basis of their capacity to(More)
We have determined the crystal structure of a complex between the I domain of integrin alpha2beta1 and a triple helical collagen peptide containing a critical GFOGER motif. Three loops on the upper surface of the I domain that coordinate a metal ion also engage the collagen, with a collagen glutamate completing the coordination sphere of the metal.(More)
Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated leukocytes that erode the mineralized bone matrix. Osteoclastogenesis requires costimulatory receptor signaling through adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa. Identification of these ITAM-containing(More)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was identified in platelets on the basis of (a) its reactivity with antibodies to C-terminal and N-terminal peptides, and (b) its ability to activate MAPK-activated protein kinase-2, which phosphorylates the small heat shock protein, hsp27. p38 MAPK was activated in platelets by collagen fibers, a collagen-related(More)
The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to and are activated by collagens. Similar to collagen-binding β1 integrins, the DDRs bind to specific motifs within the collagen triple helix. However, these two types of collagen receptors recognize distinct collagen sequences. While GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline)(More)
Simple collagen-related peptides (CRPs) containing a repeat Gly-Pro-Hyp sequence are highly potent platelet agonists. Like collagen, they must exhibit tertiary (triple-helical) and quaternary (polymeric) structure to activate platelets. Platelet signaling events induced by the peptides are the same as most of those induced by collagen. The peptides do not(More)