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Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human(More)
In 7 different studies, the authors observed that a large number of thinking biases are uncorrelated with cognitive ability. These thinking biases include some of the most classic and well-studied biases in the heuristics and biases literature, including the conjunction effect, framing effects, anchoring effects, outcome bias, base-rate neglect, "less is(More)
The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005) is designed to measure the tendency to override a prepotent response alternative that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. In this study, we showed that the CRT is a more potent predictor of performance on a wide sample of tasks from the(More)
In two experiments, involving over 900 subjects, we examined the cognitive correlates of the tendency to view P(D/approximately H) and base rate information as relevant to probability assessment. We found that individuals who viewed P(D/approximately H) as relevant in a selection task and who used it to make the proper Bayesian adjustment in a probability(More)
Several tasks from the heuristics and biases literature were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding/acceptance principle-that the deeper the understanding of a normative principle, the greater the tendency to respond in accord with it. The principle was instantiated both correlationally and experimentally. An individual differences(More)
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been used to study decision-making differences in many different clinical and developmental samples. It has been suggested that IGT performance captures abilities that are separable from cognitive abilities, including executive functions and intelligence. The purpose of the current review was to examine studies that have(More)
This paper describes how Dynamic Window-Constrained Scheduling (DWCS) can guarantee real-time service to packets from multiple streams with different performance objectives. We show that: (1) DWCS can guarantee that no more than x packets miss their deadlines for every y consecutive packets requiring service, as long as the minimum aggregate bandwidth(More)
This paper describes an algorithm for scheduling packets in real-time multimedia data streams. Common to these classes of data streams are service constraints in terms of bandwidth and delay. However, it is typical for real-time multimedia streams to tolerate bounded delay variations and, in some cases, finite losses of packets. We have therefore developed(More)