The antigenic variation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins requires frequent changes in vaccine formulation. The classical method of creating influenza virus seed strains for vaccine production is to generate 6 + 2 reassortants that contain six genes from a high-yield virus, such as A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and the HA and… (More)
H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. To evaluate the potential threat of H9N2 viruses to humans, we investigated the replication and transmission efficiency of H9N2 viruses in the ferret model. Five wild-type (WT) H9N2 viruses, isolated from different… (More)
We report serologic evidence of avian influenza infection in 1 duck hunter and 2 wildlife professionals with extensive histories of wild waterfowl and game bird exposure. Two laboratory methods showed evidence of past infection with influenza A/H11N9, a less common virus strain in wild ducks, in these 3 persons.
If we are to improve our ability to reliably and consistently create high quality hypermedia applications then we need to improve our understanding of the development process and its relationship to the quality of the end applications. An important aspect in achieving this understanding is the ability to assess the process. This is in turn best facilitated… (More)
Since the "bird flu" incident in Hong Kong SAR in 1997, several studies have highlighted the substantial role of domestic birds, such as turkeys and chickens, in the ecology of influenza A viruses. Even if recent evidence suggests that chickens can maintain several influenza serotypes, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in domestic species are… (More)
BACKGROUND Replication-competent virus vector vaccines might have advantages compared with non-replicating vector vaccines. We tested the safety and immunogenicity of an oral adenovirus serotype 4 vector vaccine candidate (Ad4-H5-Vtn) expressing the haemagglutinin from an avian influenza A H5N1 virus. METHODS We did this phase 1 study at four sites in the… (More)
BACKGROUND Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays an important role in innate defense against influenza A viruses (IAVs) and other pathogens. METHODS We tested antiviral activities of recombinant human SP-D against a panel of IAV strains that vary in glycosylation sites on their hemagglutinin (HA). For these experiments a recombinant version of human SP-D of… (More)
Influenza viruses elude immune responses and antiviral chemotherapeutics through genetic drift and reassortment. As a result, the development of new strategies that attack a highly conserved viral function to prevent and/or treat influenza infection is being pursued. Such novel broadly acting antiviral therapies would be less susceptible to virus escape and… (More)