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OBJECTIVE To assess the relative risk of major congenital malformation (MCM) from in utero exposure to antiepileptic drug (AEDs). METHODS Prospective data collected by the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register were analysed. The presence of MCMs recorded within the first three months of life was the main outcome measure. RESULTS Full outcome data were(More)
OBJECTIVE In the general population, folic acid supplementation during pregnancy has been demonstrated to reduce the frequency of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other major congenital malformations (MCMs). It is recommended that women with epilepsy contemplating pregnancy take supplemental folic acid because of the known antifolate effect of some(More)
It is not known whether the antiepileptic drug (AED) levetiracetam can be used safely in human pregnancy. As part of a study to determine the risks of major congenital malformations (MCMs) for infants exposed to AEDs in utero, we identified all cases exposed to levetiracetam. Three of 117 exposed pregnancies had an MCM (2.7%; 95% CI 0.9% to 7.7%); all 3(More)
OBJECTIVES Topiramate (Topamax) is licensed to be used, either in monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment, for generalized tonic clonic seizures or partial seizures with or without secondary generalization and for prevention of migraine. The safety of topiramate in human pregnancy is largely unknown. Here we report on our experience of pregnancies exposed to(More)
BACKGROUND In many resource poor settings only sputum microscopy is employed for the diagnosis of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis; sputum culture may not be available. METHODS We determined the diagnostic accuracy of sputum microscopy for active case finding of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis using TB culture as the reference standard. (More)
BACKGROUND Active tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected persons living in tuberculosis endemic countries, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) is recommended routinely. We sought to determine the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture in the decision to treat for presumptive TB using active case finding in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. (More)
Campylobacter outbreaks are rarely detected despite Campylobacter being the most common food-borne illness notified to public health authorities. We report a prolonged outbreak of Campylobacter occurring over a three month period at a training facility. Seventy-eight cases were detected, 16 of which were confirmed Campylobacter infections. In seven affected(More)
Two commercially available nucleic acid-based tests, ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott Laboratories) and PCR (Roche Diagnostics), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine samples were compared with culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Microtrak; Syva) for C. trachomatis detection in genital samples. The samples were collected(More)
  • Valerie B Barnes, Steve Crane, Mike Curtis, Tom Hillegass, Jeff Loftus, Doug Mckelvey +25 others
Acknowledgements The materials included in this guide are gathered from many sources. Many of these are published documents, and these are cited as references. But many of the ideas are also drawn from informal conversations, working notes, presentations and e-mails that have occurred during the course of the CVISN program. The author is grateful to the(More)