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Exosomes are 60-100-nm membrane vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular milieu as a consequence of multivesicular body fusion with the plasma membrane. Here we determined the protein and lipid compositions of highly purified human B cell-derived exosomes. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated the abundant presence of major histocompatibility(More)
Many intracellular compartments, including MHC class II-containing lysosomes, melanosomes, and phagosomes, move along microtubules in a bidirectional manner and in a stop-and-go fashion due to the alternating activities of a plus-end directed kinesin motor and a minus-end directed dynein-dynactin motor. It is largely unclear how motor proteins are targeted(More)
Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (receptor-PTPs) represent a novel family of transmembrane proteins that are thought to play important roles in cellular regulation. They consist of a cytoplasmic catalytic region, a single transmembrane segment and an extracellular, putative ligand-binding domain, but the nature of their physiological ligands is(More)
RPTP mu is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase with an adhesion molecule-like ectodomain. It has recently been shown that RPTP mu mediates homophilic interactions when expressed in insect cells. In this study, we have examined how RPTP mu may function as a cell contact receptor in mink lung epithelial cells, which express RPTPmu endogenously, as(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate adaptive immune responses by activating T cells via cognate interactions between MHC-peptide complexes and T cell receptors. In immature DCs, MHC class II is predominantly stored in late endocytic compartments, where it has a short half-life because of degradation. In contrast, mature DCs recruit MHC class II to the plasma(More)
Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules are sorted to lysosomal structures where peptide loading can occur. Beyond this point in biosynthesis, no MHC class II molecules have been detected at locations other than the cell surface. We studied this step in intracellular transport by visualizing MHC class II molecules in living cells. For this purpose we(More)
Insulin induces a rapid activation of p21ras in NIH 3T3 and Chinese hamster ovary cells that overexpress the insulin receptor. Previously, we suggested that p21ras may mediate insulin-induced gene expression. To test such a function of p21ras more directly, we studied the effect of different dominant inhibitory mutants of p21ras on the induction of gene(More)
MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently transported to the cell surface. We previously visualised(More)
Seminal plasma contains various types of extracellular vesicles, including 'prostasomes'. Prostasomes are small vesicles secreted by prostatic epithelial cells that can be recruited by and fuse with sperm cells in response of progesterone that is released by oocyte surrounding cumulus cells. This delivers Ca(2+) signaling tools that allow the sperm cell to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to present peptide antigens to T cells. In immature DCs, which bear low cell surface levels of MHC II, peptide-loaded MHC II is ubiquitinated. Ubiquitination drives the endocytosis and sorting of MHC II to the luminal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for lysosomal(More)