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In 1991, the AIDS Task Force of the American Academy of Neurology published nomenclature and research case definitions to guide the diagnosis of neurologic manifestations of HIV-1 infection. Now, 16 years later, the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke have charged a working group to critically(More)
In order to define the histopathological substrate of the dementia that frequently complicates the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we analyzed the neuropathological findings in 70 autopsied adult AIDS patients, 46 of whom had suffered clinically overt dementia. Less than 10% of the brains were histologically normal. Abnormalities were found(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is frequently complicated in its late stages by the AIDS dementia complex, a neurological syndrome characterized by abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. This dementia is due partially or wholly to a direct effect of the virus on the brain rather than to opportunistic(More)
In the brains and spinal cords of 153 adult patients dying with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at New York and Memorial Hospitals a subacute encephalitis with multinucleated cells was present in 28% of all patients. This encephalitis was characterized by multinucleated cells primarily located in the white matter and associated with myelin pallor(More)
Of 70 autopsied patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 46 suffered progressive dementia that was frequently accompanied by motor and behavioral dysfunction. Impaired memory and concentration with psychomotor slowing represented the most common early presentation of this disorder, but in nearly one half of the patients either motor or(More)
  • E J Wright, B Grund, K Robertson, B J Brew, M Roediger, M P Bain +9 others
  • 2010
OBJECTIVE To determine factors associated with baseline neurocognitive performance in HIV-infected participants enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) neurology substudy. METHODS Participants from Australia, North America, Brazil, and Thailand were administered a 5-test neurocognitive battery. Z scores and the(More)
HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS) in the context of acute infection, persists thereafter in the absence of treatment, and leads to chronic intrathecal immunoactivation that can be measured by the macrophage activation marker, neopterin, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this review we describe our experience with CSF neopterin measurements in(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients is reported to be high. Whether this is a result of active HIV-related neurodegeneration is unclear. We examined axonal injury in HIV-1 patients by measuring the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL) in CSF with a novel, sensitive method. METHODS With a cross-sectional(More)
Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an neurotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist and an L-tryptophan metabolite of the kynurenine pathway. Increased concentrations of QUIN occur in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, particularly those with neurologic disturbances. In the present study of(More)
BACKGROUND Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta), amyloid beta fragment 1-42(More)