Richard W. Marklin

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A study was conducted on 90 experienced office workers to determine how commercially available alternative computer keyboards affected wrist and forearm posture. The alternative keyboards tested had the QWERTY layout of keys and were of three designs: split fixed angle, split adjustable angle, and vertically inclined (tilted or tented). When set up(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Positioning a computer keyboard with a downward slope reduces wrist extension needed to use the keyboard and has been shown to decrease pressure in the carpal tunnel. However, whether a downward slope of the keyboard reduces electromyographic (EMG) activity of the forearm muscles, in particular the wrist extensors, is not known. (More)
Design of computer keyboards no longer is limited to the flat keyboards that are typically shipped with personal computers. Keyboards now exist that are split into halves and these halves can be slanted away from each other (creating a triangle between the halves), sloped downward toward the visual display terminal, tilted upward like a tent, or simply(More)
The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive investigation to document wrist and forearm postures of users of conventional computer keyboards. We instrumented 90 healthy, experienced clerical workers with electromechanical goniometers to measure wrist and forearm position and range of motion for both upper extremities while typing. For an alphabetic(More)
A joint study was conducted by a manufacturer of dental stools in the Midwest of the United States and Marquette University to measure the occupational postures of dentists and dental hygienists. The postures of 10 dentists and 10 dental hygienists were assessed using work sampling and video techniques. Postural data of the neck, shoulders and lower back(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile computer supported by a commercially available mount in a light truck cab. BACKGROUND U.S. and Canadian electric utility companies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. There are no publications on the(More)
OBJECTIVE A shovel with a blade perforated with small holes was tested to see whether a worker would use less whole-body energy to dig wet clay than with a shovel with an opaque blade. BACKGROUND A perforated shovel is hypothesized to require less whole-body energy on the basis of adhesion theory; a smaller surface area would require less physical effort(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether conventional anthropometric databases of the U.S. general population are applicable to the population of U.S. electric utility field-workers. BACKGROUND On the basis of anecdotal observations, field-workers for electric power utilities were thought to be generally taller and larger than(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine how height of a hand wheel affects maximum torque production and risk of injury to the shoulders and back of workers. BACKGROUND Workers in the processing, refinery, and energy generation industries manually open and close valves with hand wheels that require high torque. This task is physically strenuous(More)
This study aimed to compare and analyse rubber-dome desktop, spring-column desktop and notebook keyboards in terms of key stiffness and fingertip typing force. The spring-column keyboard resulted in the highest mean peak contact force (0.86N), followed by the rubber dome desktop (0.68N) and the notebook (0.59N). All these differences were statistically(More)