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Matter with a high energy density (>10(5) joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived(More)
The motion of atoms on interatomic potential energy surfaces is fundamental to the dynamics of liquids and solids. An accelerator-based source of femtosecond x-ray pulses allowed us to follow directly atomic displacements on an optically modified energy landscape, leading eventually to the transition from crystalline solid to disordered liquid. We show(More)
Linear-accelerator-based sources will revolutionize ultrafast x-ray science due to their unprecedented brightness and short pulse duration. However, time-resolved studies at the resolution of the x-ray pulse duration are hampered by the inability to precisely synchronize an external laser to the accelerator. At the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source at the(More)
We demonstrate an apparatus for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from a synchrotron are diffracted by a pair of Si(111) crystals and detected with an x-ray streak camera that has single-shot resolution of better than 1 ps. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch, which is triggered by 100-fs laser pulses at a(More)
In vivo flow 31P NMR spectroscopy of a microscopic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, is described. Long-term viability was maintained during analysis by continuous circulation of an oxygenated suspension of the parasite through an NMR spectrometer. Saturation transfer and inversion recovery were employed under flowing conditions to investigate the kinetics(More)
Spectrally resolved scattering of ultrafast K-alpha x-rays has provided experimental validation of the modeling of the compression and heating of shocked matter. The elastic scattering component has characterized the evolution and coalescence of two shocks launched by a nanosecond laser pulse into lithium hydride with an unprecedented temporal resolution of(More)
Even the most basic properties of liquid carbon have long been debated due to the challenge of studying the material at the required high temperature and pressure. Liquid carbon is volatile and thus inherently transient in an unconstrained environment. In this paper we use a new technique of picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study(More)
One approach for heating a target to "Warm Dense Matter" conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in inertial confinement fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam(More)
The LCLS beam provides revolutionary capabilities for studying the transient behavior of matter in extreme conditions. The particular strength of the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument is that it combines the unique LCLS beam with high-power optical laser beams, and a suite of dedicated diagnostics tailored for this field of science. In this paper an(More)
The melting dynamics of laser excited InSb have been studied with femtosecond x-ray diffraction. These measurements observe the delayed onset of diffusive atomic motion, signaling the appearance of liquidlike dynamics. They also demonstrate that the root-mean-squared displacement in the [111] direction increases faster than in the [110] direction after the(More)