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We employed CT scanning to correlate scalp markers placed according to the international 10-20 system with underlying cerebral structures. Subjects were 12 normal volunteers. Measurements included assessment for cranial asymmetry to determine the effect of skull asymmetry on cortical location of electrodes. Results were correlated with the cortical(More)
This study compares an automated spike detection program to a group of 6 electroencephalographers. Since group members varied in experience, an expertise factor was devised to weight their scoring. EEGers underscored epileptiform events on 6 records in a manner analogous to the computer's storage of EEG segments. A summation of expertise factors was(More)
The effect of kindled seizures on the cardiovascular system was examined in amygdaloid kindled rats. The most prominent cardiovascular response during a generalized kindled seizure was an abrupt 50% increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) lasting 20-30 s after initiation of the seizure. Superimposed on this change in blood pressure (BP) was a profound(More)
Amygdaloid kindled seizures in the rat induce an abrupt elevation of blood pressure accompanied by a significant decrease in heart rate. The autonomic pharmacology of this response was examined in unanesthetized kindled rats. Muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine (1 mg/kg, intravenous (i.v.)) abolished the seizure-induced bradycardia. The(More)
The safety and efficacy of zonisamide (ZNS), a new antiepileptic drug, was tested in 167 adult participants who entered a historical-controlled 16-week open label, multicenter study. The median percent reduction from baseline of partial seizures was 51.8% in the fourth month of the study (baseline median = 11.5 sz/month; treatment weeks 13-16 = 5.5(More)
Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in a double-blind, randomized trial. Seventy-eight patients with 81 episodes were enrolled. Patients received one or two doses of either 4 mg of lorazepam or 10 mg of diazepam intravenously. Seizures were controlled in 89% of the episodes treated with lorazepam and in 76% treated(More)
Lorazepam was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in eight patients with frequent partial complex seizures refractory to therapy with a combination of standard anticonvulsant drugs. Concomitant antiepileptic drugs were maintained at therapeutic serum levels throughout the study, and concentrations of lorazepam were monitored.(More)
Using a single-photon emission computed tomographic scanner (SPECT) the authors determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with inhaled xenon-133, a noninvasive procedure. Studies were performed in 40 normal individuals, and these were compared with rCBF determinations in 51 patients with seizure disorders. Although positive results were obtained in 15(More)
Lorazepam, a dichloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepine, has been shown to be a potent anticonvulsant in animal models of epilsepsy and has minimal depressant effects on respiration and circulation in humans. The effects of this compound were studied in status epilepticus. Twenty-five patients were given intravenous lorazepam during status epilepticus of varying(More)
Patients with partial seizures have cognitive function impairments that have been attributed to the toxic side effects of anticonvulsants and structural cerebral damage. However, even when these factors are absent, neuropsychological (NP) deficits have been demonstrated, although of milder degree than in structurally brain-damaged patients. Assessment of(More)