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A variety of evidence suggests that endogenous opioid peptides play a role in the short-term control of eating. More recently, opioid receptor antagonists like naltrexone have been approved as a treatment for alcohol dependence. Here we review the evidence for a role of opioid peptides in both normal and abnormal eating and drinking behaviours and in(More)
The taste reactivity (TR) test was devised as a method to obtain behavioural data in response to gustatory stimuli in neurologically impaired rats, incapable of voluntary feeding. Sapid solutions were infused through surgically implanted intraoral cannulae. Facial and motor responses corresponded well to known hedonic and aversive properties of tastes(More)
The effects of the introduction of timed pauses within meals and palatability on food intake and changes in rated appetite during a meal were assessed in three experiments in which volunteers ate a lunch of pasta with a tomato sauce. Eating was monitored using a disguised electronic balance attached to a micro-computer, which also allowed the introduction(More)
The effects of 50 mg naltrexone on both pleasantness and intake of 10 common food items were investigated using a double-blind placebo-controlled study with 16 male volunteers. Rated food pleasantness was reduced significantly in the naltrexone condition compared with both controls (placebo and baseline). However, pleasantness ratings were not affected(More)
The effects of 50 mg naltrexone on eating and subjective appetite were assessed in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with 20 male volunteers. Appetite was monitored using a disguised digital balance connected to a micro-computer, which constantly monitored the amount of food remaining, and which automatically interrupted feeding for 30 s after every(More)
The effects of consumption of a soup preload with added maltodextrin, relative to a no-maltodextrin control soup matched for sensory properties, on intake and the pattern of changes in rated hunger and fullness during lunch were investigated in 24 male volunteers. Preloads were consumed 30 min before lunch and condition-order counterbalanced. Intake at(More)
Manipulations of test meal palatability and nutritional need-state to examine feeding behaviour have, to date, been studied in isolation. Recent investigations have attempted to examine these influences in combination. In the present study, healthy young males received intragastric infusions of soup (265 or 1514 kJ) on four different occasions. The infusion(More)
The role of gastric volume in the short-term control of eating in humans remains unclear, with some studies reporting that food volume alone can reduce appetite but others finding no such effect. A recent study in our laboratory, found effects of preload volume on subjective appetite (hunger, fullness) but not intake, and found effects of preload energy on(More)
The effects of the actual and labelled fat content of a soup preload on appetite at a test meal 30 min later were assessed in 16 healthy men. Each participant ate lunch on four occasions, combining two levels of fat energy (Low, 265 kJ or High, 1510 kJ) and two types of label (Low-fat or High-fat), presented as fictitious soup brand names. Preliminary work(More)
The effects of d-fenfluramine on intake and on hedonic responses to taste stimuli in rats were investigated using a modified taste reactivity paradigm. Subjects (n = 15) were first trained to consume a 3% sucrose solution. They were then pretreated with d-fenfluramine (0.3-3.0 mg/kg, i.p.), and tested with access to either 3% sucrose, or a 0.01% quinine HCl(More)