Richard W D Welford

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Activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex is controlled by oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of prolyl and asparaginyl residues. Hydroxylation of specific prolyl residues by 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases mediates ubiquitinylation and proteasomal destruction of HIF-alpha. Hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal(More)
Flavonoids are common colorants in plants and have long-established biomedicinal properties. Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), a 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase, catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the anthocyanin class of flavonoids. The crystal structure of ANS reveals a multicomponent active site containing metal, cosubstrate, and(More)
Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), flavonol synthase (FLS), and flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase (FHT) are involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in plants and are all members of the family of 2-oxoglutarate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenases. ANS, FLS, and FHT are closely related by sequence and catalyze oxidation of the flavonoid "C ring"; they have been(More)
The accessibility of large substrates to buried enzymatic active sites is dependent upon the utilization of proteinaceous channels. The necessity of these channels in the case of small substrates is questionable because diffusion through the protein matrix is often assumed. Copper amine oxidases contain a buried protein-derived quinone cofactor and a(More)
The 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron dependent oxygenases are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyse a wide range of reactions including hydroxylations, desaturations and oxidative ring closures. Recently, it has been discovered that they act as sensors in the hypoxic response in humans and other animals. Substrate oxidation is coupled to conversion of(More)
During the biosynthesis of the tricyclic flavonoid natural products in plants, oxidative modifications to the central C-ring are catalysed by Fe(ii) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases. The reactions catalysed by three of these enzymes; flavone synthase I, flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), are formally desaturations. In comparison,(More)
Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), an iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenase, catalyses the penultimate step in anthocyanin biosynthesis by oxidation of the 2R,3S,4S-cis-leucoanthocyanidins. It has been believed that in vivo the products of ANS are the anthocyanidins. However, in vitro studies on ANS using optically active cis- and(More)
The increasing spread of drug-resistant malaria strains underscores the need for new antimalarial agents with novel modes of action (MOAs). Here, we describe a compound representative of a new class of antimalarials. This molecule, ACT-213615, potently inhibits in vitro erythrocytic growth of all tested Plasmodium falciparum strains, irrespective of their(More)
A representative of a new class of potent antimalarials with an unknown mode of action was recently described. To identify the molecular target of this class of antimalarials, we employed a photo-reactive affinity capture method to find parasite proteins specifically interacting with the capture compound in living parasitized cells. The capture reagent(More)