Richard W. Carr

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Sensory acuity and motor dexterity deteriorate when human limbs cool down, but pain perception persists and cold-induced pain can become excruciating. Evolutionary pressure to enforce protective behaviour requires that damage-sensing neurons (nociceptors) continue to function at low temperatures. Here we show that this goal is achieved by endowing(More)
Axonal conduction velocity varies according to the level of preceding impulse activity. In unmyelinated axons this typically results in a slowing of conduction velocity and a parallel increase in threshold. It is currently held that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent axonal hyperpolarization is responsible for this slowing but this has long been equivocal. We(More)
A new virtual memory management algorithm WSCLOCK has been synthesized from the local working set (WS) algorithm, the global CLOCK algorithm, and a new load control mechanism for auxiliary memory access. The new algorithm combines the most useful feature of WS—a natural and effective load control that prevents thrashing—with the simplicity and(More)
Recent findings suggest that itch produced by intradermal insertion of cowhage spicules in human is histamine independent. Neuronal mechanisms underlying nonhistaminergic itch are poorly understood. To investigate which nerve fibers mediate cowhage induced itch in man, action potentials were recorded from cutaneous C-fibers of the peroneal nerve in healthy(More)
Noise is generally considered to have deleterious effects on the sensitivity of a signal detection system. There are, however, several mechanisms whereby the addition of noise to the input of a system can in fact improve sensitivity. One such mechanism is stochastic resonance. Although first proposed in 1981, conclusive experimental evidence for "fully(More)
Infusion of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin leads to an acute and a chronic form of peripheral neuropathy. Acute oxaliplatin neuropathy is characterized by sensory paresthesias and muscle cramps that are notably exacerbated by cooling. Painful dysesthesias are rarely reported for acute oxaliplatin neuropathy, whereas a common symptom of chronic(More)
Physiological changes in the nervous system occur with ageing. Both a decline of function and a decrease in the number of C-fibres in the skin have been reported for healthy aged subjects. With the use of microneurographic recordings from single C-fibres in humans we have compared the sensory and axonal properties of these neurones in young and aged healthy(More)
Action potential initiation and conduction along peripheral axons is a dynamic process that displays pronounced activity dependence. In patients with neuropathic pain, differences in the modulation of axonal conduction velocity by activity suggest that this property may provide insight into some of the pathomechanisms. To date, direct recordings of axonal(More)
Sympathetically maintained pain could either be mediated by ephaptic interactions between sympathetic efferent and afferent nociceptive fibers or by catecholamine-induced activation of nociceptive nerve endings. We report here single fiber recordings from C nociceptors in a patient with sympathetically maintained pain, in whom sympathetic blockade had(More)
BACKGROUND Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such(More)