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Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted(More)
Optical tweezers are a powerful tool for micromanipulation and measurement of picoNewton sized forces. However, conventional interfaces present difficulties as the user cannot feel the forces involved. We present an interface to optical tweezers, based around a low-cost commercial force feedback device. The different dynamics of the micro-world make(More)
We present a holographic optical tweezers system capable of position clamping multiple particles. Moving an optical trap in response to the trapped object's motion is a powerful technique for optical control and force measurement. We have now realised this experimentally using a Boulder Nonlinear Systems Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) with a refresh rate of(More)
Conventional cameras rely upon a pixelated sensor to provide spatial resolution. An alternative approach replaces the sensor with a pixelated transmission mask encoded with a series of binary patterns. Combining knowledge of the series of patterns and the associated filtered intensities, measured by single-pixel detectors, allows an image to be deduced(More)
Holographic optical tweezers have found many applications including the construction of complex micron-scale 3D structures and the control of tools and probes for position, force, and viscosity measurement. We have developed a compact, stable, holographic optical tweezers instrument which can be easily transported and is compatible with a wide range of(More)
Interrogating individual molecules within bio-membranes is key to deepening our understanding of biological processes essential for life. Using Raman spectroscopy to map molecular vibrations is ideal to non-destructively 'fingerprint' biomolecules for dynamic information on their molecular structure, composition and conformation. Such tag-free tracking of(More)
Nanometer-sized gaps between plasmonically coupled adjacent metal nanoparticles enclose extremely localized optical fields, which are strongly enhanced. This enables the dynamic investigation of nanoscopic amounts of material in the gap using optical interrogation. Here we use impinging light to directly tune the optical resonances inside the plasmonic(More)
We investigate holographic optical trapping combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection stereolithography for fine control of 3D position of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel. C2C12 myoblast cells were chosen as a demonstration platform since their development into multinucleated myotubes requires linear arrangements of myoblasts.(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Children and adults with neurological impairments are often not able to access conventional perimetry; however, information about the visual field is valuable. A new technology, saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP), may have improved accessibility, but its accuracy has not been evaluated. We aimed to explore accessibility,(More)
OBJECTIVES   Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a mainstay in the continuum of care for patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain of the trunk and limbs. Options for placing these devices have included a percutaneous method of using an epidural needle to place a cylindrical (percutaneous) lead to stimulate the spinal cord, or an open laminotomy(More)