Richard Thorogate

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The contractile actin cortex is a thin layer of actin, myosin, and actin-binding proteins that subtends the membrane of animal cells. The cortex is the main determinant of cell shape and plays a fundamental role in cell division [1-3], migration [4], and tissue morphogenesis [5]. For example, cortex contractility plays a crucial role in amoeboid migration(More)
While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels(More)
Translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus is a major response by calmodulin (CaM) to stimulation of cells by Ca2+. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still controversial and both passive and facilitated diffusion have been put forward. We tested nuclear translocation mechanisms in electroporated HeLa cells, rat cortical neurons and(More)
Proteins of the ERM family (ezrin, moesin, radixin) play a fundamental role in tethering the membrane to the cellular actin cortex as well as regulating cortical organization and mechanics. Overexpression of dominant inactive forms of ezrin leads to fragilization of the membrane-cortex link and depletion of moesin results in softer cortices that disrupt(More)
Aqueous dispersions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) capped poly[2-(2',5'-bis(2''-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (BEHP-PPV) nanospheres with an average particle diameter of 13 nm have been synthesised by a miniemulsion route and used in simple intracellular imaging experiments.
Overexpression of the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) isoform 4b by means of the baculovirus system enabled us, for the first time, to study the kinetics of calmodulin binding to this pump. This was done by stopped-flow fluorescence measurements using 2-chloro-(amino-Lys(75))-[6-[4-(N,N-diethylamino)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazin-4-yl]calmodulin (TA-calmodulin).(More)
The activation mechanism of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII) is investigated by steady-state and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies. Lys(75)-labeled TA-cal [Török, K., and Trentham, D. R. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 12807-12820] is used to measure binding events, and double-labeled AEDANS,DDP-T34C/T110/C-calmodulin [Drum et al.(More)
Full DNA profiles can be generated from just a few cells; however these profiles can be contaminated from other cell types present at the crime scene. We report here on the development of an immunofluorescent technique to spatially locate human-specific blood in situ and also on the ability of this technique to detect individual leukocytes and the DNA(More)
Ca2+ signalling to the nucleus is thought to occur by calmodulin entry into the nucleus where calmodulin has many functions. In the present study we have investigated the role of Ca2+ and the N- and C-terminal lobes of calmodulin in its subnuclear targeting by using fluorescently labelled calmodulin and its mutants and confocal microscopy. Our data show,(More)
Structural variability and flexibility are crucial factors for biomolecular function. Here we have reduced the invasiness and enhanced the spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize, for the first time, different structural conformations of the two polynucleotide strands in the DNA double helix, for single molecules under(More)