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The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells requires the sequential interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with the CD4 glycoprotein and a chemokine receptor on the cell surface. These interactions initiate a fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Although gp120 can elicit virus-neutralizing antibodies, HIV(More)
Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies is providing considerable insight into mechanisms of broad HIV-1 neutralization. Here we report an HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific antibody, named 10E8, which neutralizes ∼98% of tested viruses. An analysis of sera from 78 healthy HIV-1-infected donors demonstrated that 27%(More)
Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
The third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is immunodominant and contains features essential for coreceptor binding. We determined the structure of V3 in the context of an HIV-1 gp120 core complexed to the CD4 receptor and to the X5 antibody at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Binding of gp120 to cell-surface CD4 would position V3 so(More)
The CCR5 co-receptor binds to the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and facilitates HIV-1 entry into cells. Its N terminus is tyrosine-sulfated, as are many antibodies that react with the co-receptor binding site on gp120. We applied nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallographic techniques to analyze the structure of the CCR5 N terminus and that of the(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 establishes persistent infections in humans which lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, are assembled into a trimeric complex that mediates virus entry into target cells. HIV-1 entry depends on the sequential interaction of the gp120 exterior envelope(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins interact with receptors on the target cell and mediate virus entry by fusing the viral and cell membranes. The structure of the envelope glycoproteins has evolved to fulfill these functions while evading the neutralizing antibody response. An understanding of the viral strategies for(More)
For efficient entry into target cells, primary macrophage-tropic and laboratory-adapted human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) require particular chemokine receptors, CCR-5 and CXCR-4, respectively, as well as the primary receptor CD4 (refs 1-6). Here we show that a complex of gp120, the exterior envelope glycoprotein, of macrophage-tropic primary(More)
Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we(More)
The entry of primate immunodeficiency viruses into target cells depends on a sequential interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with the cellular receptors, CD4 and members of the chemokine receptor family. The gp120 third variable (V3) loop has been implicated in chemokine receptor binding, but the use of the CCR5 chemokine receptor by diverse(More)