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BACKGROUND The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance(More)
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has established a syndromic surveillance system that monitors emergency department visits to detect disease outbreaks early. Routinely collected chief complaint information is transmitted electronically to the health department daily and analyzed for temporal and spatial aberrations. Respiratory,(More)
INTRODUCTION Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are frequently used during the initial phase of illness, and increases in their sales might serve as an early indicator of communitywide disease outbreaks. Since August 2002, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) has tracked OTC medication sales to enhance detection of natural(More)
BACKGROUND Use of syndromic surveillance as a tool to detect outbreaks and potential biologic or chemical terrorist attacks is increasing. Evaluating health departments' use of syndromic surveillance is necessary to determine the value of this methodology. METHODS Syndromic surveillance signals detected by the New York City Department of Health and Mental(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of understanding age when estimating the impact of influenza on hospitalizations and deaths has been well described, yet existing surveillance systems have not made adequate use of age-specific data. Monitoring influenza-related morbidity using electronic health data may provide timely and detailed insight into the age-specific(More)
BACKGROUND Adults infected with HIV have high rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children could affect disease among HIV-infected adults. OBJECTIVE To compare invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults before and after the introduction of a pediatric conjugate vaccine. DESIGN Active(More)
BACKGROUND Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance(More)
INTRODUCTION Early detection of disease outbreaks enables public health officials to implement immediate disease control and prevention measures. Computer-based syndromic surveillance systems are being implemented to complement reporting by physicians and other health-care professionals to improve the timeliness of disease-outbreak detection. Space-time(More)
BACKGROUND During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1), morbidity and mortality sparing was observed among the elderly population; it was hypothesized that this age group benefited from immunity to pH1N1 due to cross-reactive antibodies generated from prior infection with antigenically similar influenza viruses. Evidence from serologic studies and genetic(More)
OBJECTIVE To detect an outbreak-related source of Legionella, control the outbreak, and prevent additional Legionella infections from occurring. DESIGN AND SETTING Epidemiologic investigation of an acute outbreak of hospital-associated Legionnaires disease among outpatients and visitors to a Wisconsin hospital. PATIENTS Patients with(More)