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Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells (CNS-SC) based on cell surface markers yields a highly purified stem cell population that can extensively expand in vitro and exhibit multilineage differentiation potential both in vitro and in vivo. The CNS-SC were isolated from fetal brain tissue using the cell surface markers CD133(+), CD34(-),(More)
Considerable attention has recently been focused on the development of pharmacotherapies for promotion of recovery of function after brain injury. This article reviews both animal and human experimentation in two areas which appear to have considerable clinical applicability in the very near future for promoting recovery: drug manipulation of(More)
We investigated whether a learning impairment after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was associated with alterations in molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Adult male rats with moderate CCI to the left parietal cortex, tested in a Morris water maze (MWM) beginning at postinjury day 10, showed impaired cognitive(More)
Sodium pyruvate (SP) treatment initiated within 5 min post-injury is neuroprotective in a rat model of unilateral cortical contusion injury (CCI). The current studies examined: (1) effects of delayed SP treatments (1000 mg/kg, i.p., at 1, 12 and 24h), (2) effects of single (1h) or multiple (1, 12 and 24h) ethyl pyruvate treatments (EP; at 20 or 40 mg/kg,(More)
Rats trained to traverse a narrow elevated beam were given a single intraperitoneal injection of either D-amphetamine, clonidine, L-phenylephrine, prazosin, yohimbine, or saline 24 h after ablation of the right sensorimotor cortex and tested for recovery of beam-walking (BW) ability to day 16 postsurgery. Clonidine, prazosin and L-phenylephrine did not(More)
Rats with contusion injury to the right cortex exhibited significant formation of edema 6 and 24 hours after injury which resolved by 8 days and was replaced by cavitation necrosis. The contusions produced hyperglycolysis and ischemia in the impacted cortical tissue and underlying hippocampus immediately through 30 minutes post-injury. Glucose utilization(More)
Preamble Guidelines and Expert Consensus documents aim to present all the relevant evidence on a particular issue in order to help physicians to weigh the benefits and risks of a particular diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. They should be helpful in everyday clinical decision-making. A great number of Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents have been(More)
OBJECT Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy has been shown to reduce mortality by 50% in a prospective randomized trial of severely brain injured patients conducted at the authors' institution. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of HBO on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolism, and intracranial pressure (ICP), and to(More)
The metabolic fate of [1,2 13C]-labeled glucose was determined in male control and unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injured rats at 3.5 and 24 h after surgery. The concentration of 13C-labeled glucose, lactate, glutamate and glutamine were measured in the injured and contralateral cortex. CCI animals showed a 145% increase in 13C lactate in the(More)