Richard Sun

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Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the(More)
The beneficial effects of certain herbal medicines on cutaneous function have been appreciated for centuries. Among these agents, chrysanthemum extract, apigenin, has been used for skin care, particularly in China, for millennia. However, the underlying mechanisms by which apigenin benefits the skin are not known. In this study, we first determined whether(More)
Multilayered human keratinocyte cultures increasingly are used to model human epidermis. Until now, studies utilizing human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) have been limited because previous preparations do not establish a normal epidermal permeability barrier. In this report, we show that reducing environmental humidity to 50% relative humidity yields HEEs(More)
Cornification and epidermal barrier defects are associated with a number of clinically diverse skin disorders. However, a suitable in vitro model for studying normal barrier function and barrier defects is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the generation of human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent(More)
Warning: This survey article is still undergoing occasional revisions. Please make sure you read the latest verison. Abstract— This paper discusses the principles underlying efficient video broadcasting and surveys a large number of recent papers written on the subject of video-on-demand (VOD), using consistent terminology and notation.
Humans with darkly pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison with humans with lightly pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly pigmented levels. In SKH1(More)
Systemic and topical glucocorticoids (GC) can cause significant adverse effects not only on the dermis, but also on epidermal structure and function. In epidermis, a striking GC-induced alteration in permeability barrier function occurs that can be attributed to an inhibition of epidermal mitogenesis, differentiation and lipid production. As prior studies(More)
BACKGROUND Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly(More)
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